菀腿着咽扰 门团胰着咽扰 韧遗信眼 寥蜗嗡纫仁*

 

.. 燕腧屦

 

* 项漶蝠铟睇 觐祆屙蜞痂 ..想龛磬. 襄疱忸 囗汶栝耜钽 ..隋徨溴忸.

 

 

- 责 数祜 燕腧屦  耦鲨钺桀腩 镱腓蝾腩, 耦蝠箐龛 软耱栩篁 镱忮溴龛 麇腩忮赅 吾耱忄 锑犟 想囗赅 (. 理溴躐, 拎忄痂, 缅痨囗) 软耱栩篁 泐痤漶觐 铍钽梃 桁. 塔溻桡 令朦鲮囗 (洛磬, 棱耱痂). 噔蝾 祛眍沭圄栝 (揈motion in Command: A Naturalistic Study of Institutional Dominance, 1995; 揙n Genetic Interests, 2003), 铗忮蝰蜮屙睇 疱溧牝铕 祛眍沭圄栝 揈thnic Conflict and Indocrination: Altruism and Identity in Evolutionare Perspective, 1998; 揜isky Transactions: Trust, Kinship, and Ethnicity, 2002. - 燕腧屦 怆弪 皴牮弪囵屐 体驿箜囵钿眍泐 钺耱忄 铍钽梃 麇腩忮赅 (ISHE).

溧眄铋 耱囹 桤豚汔 桎彖 噔蝾疣 钺豚耱 镳桦铈屙 觐眦屣鲨 耦鲨钺桀腩汨 镱腓蜩赍 (徼铒铍栩桕). 卿羼 镳邃豚汔弪 耦牮帙屙睇 礤耜铍 桤戾礤眄 忄痂囗 耱囹, 觐蝾疣 镱腠铎 钺戾 铒筢腓觐忄磬 镱 磬玮囗桢 獷stimating Ethnic Genetic Interests: Is it Adaptive to Resist Replacement Migration? 骟痦嚯 玃opulation and Environment (2002.  V. 24, No. 2.  P. 111136).

 

 

橡桠钿栩 腓 镱腓蜩麇耜铄 耦镥痦梓羼蜮 礤耜铍桴 眍耦 玎 蝈痧栩铕棹, 觐蝾痼 铐 磬皴 耦忪羼蝽 桦 磬 觐蝾痼 铐 镳弪屙潴, 赅觇-腓犷 镱耠邃耱忤 磬 徼铍钽梓羼觐 (镱矬鲨铐眍-沐礤蜩麇耜铎) 箴钼礤? 枢  耜噻噱蝰 磬 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 龛麇耜铋 镱矬鲨, 觐礤黜铎 聍弪  磬 邋 狍潴? 蒡铗 忸镳铖 牮嚅礤 疱潢 镱漤桁噱蝰 沐礤蜩赅扈 耦鲨钺桀腩汔扈 镳 耩噔龛蝈朦眍 囗嚯桤 镱矬鲨 麇腩忮赅, 溧驽 觐沅 钺耋驿帼蝰 桤溴疰觇 恹泐潲 扈沭圉梃 耱铍 爨聒蜞犴铋, 黩 邋 磬琨忄 玎戾彘 扈沭圉桢[1]. 理嚯桤 耦鲨铍钽梓羼觇 疣犷 磬  蝈祗 耦玟噱 怙鬻囹脲龛, 黩 羿牝 磬腓麒 麇腩忮赅 疱镳钿箨蜩忭钽 镱忮溴龛 疱镳钿箨蜩忭 桧蝈疱耦 礤桤忮耱屙 篦屙-耦鲨铍钽囔. 锐耠邃钼囹咫 忮潴 皴 蜞, 狍潋 膻溴 耋耱怏 腓 牮囹觐怵屐屙睇 礤镱耩邃耱忮眄 桧蝈疱覃, 蜞觇 赅 铐铎梓羼赅 翳玷麇耜 徨珙镟耥铖螯, 礤 漕脬钼疱戾眄, 疱溴朦睇寤 桧蝈疱覃, 疋玎眄 沐礤蜩麇耜桁 镳钿铍驽龛屐 疋铄 龛麇耜铋 沭箫稃. 项铎 聍栩噱蝰, 黩 桁扈沭圉 桧铨蝽梓睇 沭箫 磬 蝈痧栩铕棹 觐疱眄钽 眍襦 礤玎忤耔祛 铗 邋 爨聒蜞犷 镳桢祀屐 漕 蝈 镱, 镱赅 铐 耧铖钺耱怏弪 痤耱 耦忸牦镯 漕躅漕 怦邈 磬皴脲龛 桦 溴豚弪 骅珥 膻溴 铍邋 桧蝈疱耥铋 [1].

暑眦屙蝠圉 忭桁囗 蝾朦觐 磬 犭桄嚅, 礤镱耩邃耱忮眄 桧蝈疱襦 (镱 耋蜩, 镱黩 桉觌栩咫 铐铎梓羼觇) 镳邃耱噔弪 耦祉栩咫铋, 羼腓 怦镱祉栩 蝈铕棹 龛麇耜钽 礤镱蜩珈, 疣玮栩簋 疋铄 怵屐 .蓍犭-蓍徨耵咫蝾 [2]. 耦铗忮蝰蜮梃 铋 蝈铕桢 龛麇耜 耦腓溧痦铖螯 耋耱怏弪 犭嚆钿囵 蝾祗, 黩 龛麇耜 沭箫镟 (玟羼 溧脲 磬琨忄屐 眍耦) 镳邃耱噔弪 耦犷 疣聒桊屙眢 皴禳. 橡梓桧 蝾, 黩 耔塍 蜞 磬琨忄屐钽 翦牝 铖眍忄蝈 桤-玎 镱恹眄铋 鬣耱铗 忭篁痂腩赅朦睇 狃嚓钼 觐翳鲨屙 痤漶蜮, 篑疱漤屙睇 镱 怦彘 龛麇耜铋 沭箫镥 (镱矬鲨), 狍溴 耋耱忮眄 恹 耩邃礤泐 觐翳鲨屙蜞 痤漶蜮 戾驿 镳邃耱噔栩咫扈 疣珥 龛麇耜桴 沭箫. 项铎 麟屙 钿眍泐 眍襦 镱 耱屣屙 痤漶蜮 漯筱 漯筱铎 狍潴 镱漕犴 麟屙囔 钿眍 皴禳 蝾麝 琊屙 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 漯筱钽 眍襦. 朽 蜞, 蝾 玎戾 扈沭圉, 铐铎梓羼觐 耢脲 钺羼镥麒忄 铒疱溴脲眄 恹泐潲 疱珞朦蜞蝈 桉镱朦珙忄龛 蝠箐 扈沭囗蝾, 溴祛沭圄梓羼觐 耢脲 忤忄脲眚磬 铗觌噤囗棹 皴禳彘 痤驿屙 疱徨黻 漕 塍鼬桴 怵屐屙, 蝈 黩钺 耦躔囗栩 磬腓黜 箴钼屙 赅麇耱忄 骅珥. 武磬觐 溧眄铄 镳邃镱腩驽龛 礤 猁腩 镱潋忮疰溴眍 觐腓麇耱忮眄, 矬蝈 铞屙觇 麒耠 忸珈铈睇 沐眍觐镨, 镳铊玮邃屙睇 桧滂忤漕 蝾 桦 桧铎 眍皴,   蝾, 黩 磬琨忄 龛麇耜桁 沐礤蜩麇耜桁 桧蝈疱襦扈. 徨 蜞觇 铞屙铌 礤忸珈铈眍 铒疱溴腓螯, 镳噔 腓 蝈, 牝 疣耨爨蝠桠噱 眍 赅 疣聒桊屙眢 皴禳, 桦 蝈 牝, 镱漕犴 隋忸眚桧, 铗痂鲟 磬腓麒 龛麇耜桴 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 疣珈眍驵桴 桧滂忤潴箪钼.

铋 疣犷蝈 礤 磬戾疱 钺耋驿囹 龛 耧疣忮潆桠铖螯 镳邃耱噔脲龛 觌囫耔麇耜钽 腓徨疣腓珈 镱腩驽龛 蝾, 黩 戾驿箜囵钿磬 蝾疸钼 祛驽 镳桠钿栩 忡噼祛恹泐漤 疱珞朦蜞蜞, 龛 蝾, 黩 忸轫 祛泱 忮耱桉 蝾朦觐 玎蝮 簌屐脲眄 桧蝈疱耦 腓 镳 篑腩忤 铌铐鬣蝈朦眍 礤忸珈铈眍耱 滂镫铎囹梓羼觐泐 疱龛 镳钺脲. 武磬觐 铗睨潼 礤 耦汶囫屙 蝾麝铋 琊屙, 黩 铐铎梓羼觇 镳彖祗耱忄 铗 戾纨蝽梓羼觇 耢屮屙栝 溴豚 爨耨钼簋 桁扈沭圉棹 徨珙镟耥铋 潆 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 磬蜩忭 (觐疱眄, 忪妁帼) 眍耦. 秧圜嚯 镳桠邃 赅麇耱忮眄 耦钺疣驽龛, 铖眍恹忄顸 磬 铍桀眄铋 蝈铕梃, 玎蝈 镳邃腩骟 觐腓麇耱忮眄簋 蝈铕棹 镳邃耱噔膻 溧眄 镱矬鲨铐眍 沐礤蜩觇.

 

蒡龛麇耜栝 沐礤蜩麇耜栝 桧蝈疱

蝈铕梃 礤钿囵忤龛珈[2] 沐睇  铖眍忭 邃桧桷 铗犷疣, 麇腩忮麇耜桢 桧滂忤潲  怦邈 腓 滂龛鳆 恹骅忄龛, 铍桀龛痼桢 潆 蝾泐, 黩钺 沐睇 耦躔囗腓顸 镱耠邃簋 镱觐脲龛. 袜镳铗桠, 潆 麇腩忮赅 膻猁 漯筱桴 铕汔龛珈钼 疱镳钿箨蜩忭 桧蝈疱 镳邃耱噔弪 耦犷 桧蝈疱 镳钿铍驽龛 镱蝾祚蜮 疋铊 滂耱桧牝睇[3] 沐眍. 枢 玎戾鬣弪 离尻襦礓屦, , 赅 膻猁 漯筱桢 铕汔龛珈, 铍桀龛痤忄腓 蜞觇 钺疣珙, 黩 桴 桧蝈疱覃 猁腓 屣痤潴牝桠睇. 软 耠钼囔, 桧蝈疱覃 钿眍泐 桧滂忤潴箪[4] 蜞觐恹, 黩 铐 漕腈睇 钺羼镥麒忄螯 徨耜铐鬻眍 耦躔囗屙桢 邈 沐眍 桴 觐镨 镱蝾礻圊 痤漶蜮屙龛赅趸.

亦觇 钺疣珙, 沐礤蜩麇耜栝 桧蝈疱 祛驽 猁螯 恹疣驽 觐腓麇耱忸 觐镨 磬 桧滂忤潴嚯 沐眍, 镥疱躅 镱蝾礻囔 镳铞羼皴 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮. 软滂忤潴嚯 沐礤蜩麇耜栝 桧蝈疱 铖钺   觐腓麇耱忸 觐镨 邋 沐眍, 眍耔禧 邋 镱蝾祚蜮铎. 彦戾轫 沐礤蜩麇耜栝 桧蝈疱 疱嚯桤箦蝰 麇疱 犭桤觇 痤漶蜮屙龛觐, 龛麇耜栝 沐礤蜩麇耜栝 桧蝈疱  麇疱 龛麇耜簋 沭箫矬, .. 镱矬鲨 桧滂忤漕, 痤漶蜮屙睇 戾驿 耦犷 犷朦 耱屣屙, 麇 桧滂忤溧扈 漯筱桴 镱矬鲨. 项蜩 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 鬣耱 矬蜞 桤忮耱睇 耦鲨钺桀腩汨麇耜桁 镱蜩屐 怅膻麇眄铋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 (inclusive fitness). 蒡 镱蜩 猁腩 疣琊噌铗囗 绵扈朦蝾眍 [4] 邈 蝈铕梃 嚯痼桤爨. 义铕 疣耨爨蝠桠噱 忸玟彘耱忤, 觐蝾瘥 铌噻噱 桧滂忤潴箪 磬 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 疋铊 滂耱桧牝睇 沐眍. 杨汶囫眍 铋 蝈铕梃 痤滂蝈朦, 觐蝾瘥 镳尻疣蜩 篦囫蜮钼囹 疣珈眍驽龛 镱祛汔螯 疋铊 镱蝾礻囔, 礤 桁邋 桧滂忤潴嚯铋 怅膻麇眄铋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱. 拟 疣耨爨蝠桠噱禧 镱蜩 蝈耥 疋玎睇, 镱耜铍 桧滂忤潴箪 镱恹眄铋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 耧铖钺屙 筲尻钼鬻栩 疋铊 滂耱桧牝睇 沐睇.

枢觇 耦怵屐屙睇 耦猁蜩 怆 磬 龛麇耜桢 沐礤蜩麇耜桢 桧蝈疱覃? 缅礤蜩麇耜栝 桧蝈疱 觐礤黜铎 聍弪 铌噻噱蝰 玎忤耔禧 铗 麒耠屙眍耱 镱矬鲨, 觐蝾疣 祛驽 耦牮帙囹 疱珞朦蜞蝈 忸屙睇 觐眙腓牝钼, 沐眍鲨溧 腓犷 镳 篁疣蝈 蜞觐泐 骅珥屙眍 珥圜桁钽 钽疣龛麇眄钽 疱耋瘃, 赅 蝈痧栩铕. 念耱囹铟眍 铟邂桎屙 蝾 羿牝, 黩 30%- 耥桄屙桢 麒耠屙眍耱 磬皴脲龛 眍襦 忮溴 30%- 耥桄屙棹 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 眍襦. 武磬觐 耦镥痦梓羼蜮 眍耦 蜞赕 祛驽 铌噻囹 玎戾蝽铄 怆龛 磬 铗 镳铞羼 徨 赅觐泐-腓犷 嚆疱耨桠眍泐 镱忮溴龛 钺眍 耢脲 钽 耠钼. 燕禧 痍桢 镳桁屦 蝾祗 耦怵屐屙眍 扈疱  扈痦 扈沭圉 磬皴脲龛 戾驿 泐耋溧瘃蜮囔 桦 恹耦觇 箴钼龛 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 钿眍 龛麇耜铋 沭箫稃 镳邃咫圊 祉钽铐圉桀磬朦眍泐 泐耋溧瘃蜮. 亦 驽 赅 漯邂龛 怵屐屙, 耦怵屐屙眍 泐耋溧瘃蜮 铖眍忄眍 磬 蝈痧栩铕梃 嚓蜩忭 玎弪 疋铊 沭囗桷. 务钺铄 赅麇耱忸 铛疣屐铋 蝈痧栩铕梃 耦耱铊 蝾, 黩 铐 桤铍桊箦 磬皴脲龛 铗 镱耠邃耱忤 溴祛沭圄梓羼觇 怦镫羼觐 汶钺嚯铋 镱矬鲨, 鬣耱眍耱 疋玷 翦眍戾磬扈 礤钿桧嚓钼钽 镳桊铖蜞 磬皴脲龛 扈沭圉梃. 暑沅 眍 觐眚痤腓痼弪 沭囗桷 蝈痧栩铕梃, 漕耱囹铟眍 犷朦 潆 钺羼镥麇龛 磬皴脲龛, 镱蝈 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 镱 铗眍龛 漯筱桁 眍襦 (猁耱疱 疣珈眍驵桁) 礤 钺玎蝈朦眍 耱囗钼栩 羿蜞朦眍 礤 忮溴 玎戾龛 钿眍泐 眍襦 漯筱桁. 泥驽 耦牮囹桠 麒耠屙眍耱, 镱疣驽眄 桦 铖豚犭屙磬 镱矬鲨 祛驽 猁耱痤 忸耨蜞眍忤螯 镳 篑腩忤 耦躔囗屙 觐眚痤 磬 疋铄 蝈痧栩铕桢. 武磬觐 爨聒蜞犴铄 怦咫屙桢 沐礤蜩麇耜 溧脲觇 桁扈沭囗蝾 礤皴 皴徨 镱蝈眦栲朦眢 忸珈铈眍耱 耦牮帙屙 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 桉躅漤钽 磬皴脲龛. 橡 篑腩忤 噤尻忄蝽铋 玎螓 蝈痧栩铕梃 铖蜞 汔疣眚梃 耦躔囗屙 龛麇耜铋 鲥腩耱眍耱 忸珈铈眍耱 觐祜屙耔痤忄螯 狍潴 怵屐屙眍 耥桄屙桢 疋铄 麒耠屙眍耱 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 漯筱桴 镱矬鲨.

义痧栩铕栲朦睇 桧蝈疱覃 沭箫镱恹 耱疣蝈汨 铍桀眄铎 镳铠腩 Homo sapiens 猁腓 磬耱铍 趔礓囔屙蜞朦睇扈, 黩 汶筢铌 箨铕屙桦桉 耱嚯 锺桴铍钽梓羼觐 镱蝠遽眍耱. 如 耩噔龛蝈朦睇 牮铖-牦朦蝮痦 桉耠邃钼囗栝 溧忭 桤忮耱眍, 黩 怦 耦钺耱忄 铛铗龛觐 耦徼疣蝈脲 玎腓 疋铊 蝈痧栩铕梃 铗 怦咫屙 耦皴溴 [5]. 袜 痤驿屙眍耱 钽 觐祜铐屙蜞 箨噻噱 蜞赕 蝈痧栩铕栲朦眍耱 犭桄嚅 痤漶蜮屙龛觐 麇腩忮赅  祜囗珏, 觐蝾瘥 镟蝠箅桊簋 沭囗桷 蝈痧栩铕梃 疋铄泐 耦钺耱忄 [6]. 膻溴 铢簌屙桢 沭囗桷 蝈痧栩铕梃 黧怦蜮 觐腚尻蜩忭钽 怆噤屙 蝈痧栩铕桢 忄瘘桊簋 镱 耱屣屙 桧蝈眈桠眍耱 玎忤 铗 箴钼 疣玮栩 牦朦蝮瘥. 袜镳桁屦, 蝈痧栩铕栲朦睇 疋玷, 黧怦蜮 觐腚尻蜩忭钽 怆噤屙 蝈痧栩铕桢 篑桦桠帼蝰 犭嚆钿囵 沭箫镱恹 痂蝮嚯囔, 觐蝾瘥 镳桠钿 蝾祗, 黩 铗溴朦睇 桧滂忤潴箪 桎屙蜩翳鲨痼 疋琨忄 皴 镫屐屙眍 蝈痧栩铕桢 [7]. 湾玎忤耔祛 铗 蝾泐, 沐礤蜩麇耜 腓 桦 牦朦蝮痦 镥疱溧弪 囫耦鲨桊钼囗眍耱 麇腩忮麇耜桴 沭箫 蝈痧栩铕桢,  疋琰 铌噻噱蝰 箜桠屦襦朦眍 赅 磬 沭箫镱忸 箴钼礤, 蜞 磬 箴钼礤 磬鲨 扈疣 [8]. 左怦蜮 龛麇耜铋 桎屙蜩黜铖蜩 镱漯噻箪邂噱 磬腓麒 蝈痧栩铕梃 赅 鬣耱 铋 桎屙蜩黜铖蜩  礤玎忤耔祛 铗 蝾泐, 玎蜞 腓 蝈痧栩铕 沭箫镱 磬耱 怵屐 桦 猁豚 磬皴脲磬 镳铠腩 [9]. 镫屐屙睇 耦钺耱忄 蝈痧栩铕 礤钺躅滂爨 潆 耋耱忸忄龛 镳钿铍骅蝈朦眍泐 镱滗屦驵龛 耦腓溧痦铖蜩 眍襦. 橡 邈 镥疱戾龛 耦 疋铊 珏戾朦 磬 漯筱桢 磬痼弪 镫屐屙磬 耦鲨嚯 铕汔龛玎鲨, 黩, 疋铪 铟屦邃, 耥桄噱 耧铖钺眍耱 眍襦 镱滗屦骅忄螯 礤玎忤耔祛耱 镳钿铍驵螯 耋耱忸忄龛 耦钺耱忄. 葩铍桀眄 铖眍忄 沭箫镱忸 蝈痧栩铕栲朦眍耱 麇腩忮赅 疣耨爨蝠桠嚯囫 叔轵铎 [10], 觐蝾瘥 篁忮疰溧, 黩 蝈耥 疋玷 戾驿 镳邃耱噔栩咫扈 铒疱溴脲眄钽 痤溧 桦 镫屐屙 桴 蝠遽钼囗 蝈痧栩铕梃 铌噻帼蝰 耋狁蜞眦桀磬朦眍 礤钺躅滂禧扈 屐屙蜞扈 磬鲨铐嚯铖蜩:

 

 钺疣珞 磬鲨, 镱耜铍 铐 铖铉磬 疋铪 镳桧噤脲骓铖螯 礤 (麟屙耱忸) 疋铄 铗腓麒 铗 膻溴, 磬皴桴 漯筱桢 蝈痧栩铕梃. 雾 怆 怦邈溧 怆腓顸 膻潼扈 桧狃邃眍 沭箫稃. 雾, 鬣耱眍耱, 镳桠玎睇 疋铄 痤漤铋 珏祀鍏 篷腓 珏祀 桦 磬痤 磬躅蝰 铒囫眍耱, 铐 耱疱蝰 玎蝈; 铐 脲汴 铗溧腓 猁 疋铪 骅珥 疣滂 耦躔囗屙 鲥腩耱眍耱 疋铄 珏祀 疋钺钿 疋铄泐 磬痤溧 雾 钺滂礤睇 钺扈 桧蝈疱襦扈 邃桧铋 耋潼犷. 雾 磬溴 忮, 黩 桴 镫屐, 桴 痤 龛觐沅 礤 恹祓弪. 雾 磬皴 麇蜿 钽疣龛麇眄簋 蝈痧栩铕棹 篁忮疰溧 疋铊 镳噔 磬 怆噤屙桢 铋 蝈痧栩铕桢榛 [11].

 

叔轵 蜞赕 镳桤磬忄 耋耱忸忄龛 锺桴铍钽梓羼觐泐 觐眚桧篌爨 戾驿 铗耱噼忄龛屐 沭箫镱恹 桧蝈疱耦 (蝠栳嚯桤) 磬鲨铐嚯桤祛. 篚 沭箫稃, 潴 蝠栳 桦 蝠栳嚯桤, 潴 磬鲨, 桦 磬鲨铐嚯桤,   忮 钿眍泐 痤溧吇 [12].

橡 耥桄屙梃 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 镳邃咫圊 耦狁蜮屙眍 蝈痧栩铕梃 眍 腓弪 疱耋瘃 怵屐屙, 礤钺躅滂祛泐 磬 忸耨蜞眍怆屙桢 麒耠屙眍耱 镱矬鲨, 祛徼腓玎鲨 桦 铕汔龛玎鲨 磬 眍恹 铖眍忄龛 疋铄泐 徼铍钽梓羼觐泐 镱蝈眦栲豚. 埋  忮溴 铖豚犭屙棹 疋珏 戾驿 眍耦 赅 镱矬鲨彘 邈 镱腓蜩麇耜桁 桧耱栩篁囔. 项耜铍 耦怵屐屙睇 钺耱忄 泐耋溧瘃蜮 玎戾弪 耦犷 蝠噤桷桀眄 镫屐屙睇 桧耱栩篁, 镱蝈 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 镱滗屦骊 妁 犷朦 狍溴 镱漯囹 耧铖钺眍耱 眍襦 祛徼腓玎鲨 襦祛铕汔龛玎鲨. 觐黻箴桊簋 扈疱 篁疣蜞 眍耦 耧铖钺眍耱 祛徼腓玎鲨 铕汔龛玎鲨 赅麇耱忮 襦祛铕汔龛珙忄眄铋 沭箫稃 疣忭铖桦 篁疣蝈 徼铍钽梓羼觐 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 镱矬鲨.

锑耨钼 扈沭圉 戾驿 疣珉梓睇扈 镱矬鲨扈 膻溴 磬 戾驺铖箐囵耱忮眄铎 箴钼礤 耦麇蜞龛 耋耱怏桁 觐腚尻蜩忭 纛痨囔 玎犷螓 麟屙圊 钺耱忄, 蜞觇扈 赅 龛珀 耱铊祛耱 戾滂鲨眈觐泐 钺耠箧桠囗, 桧 耧铖钺囔 镱滗屦驵龛 犭嚆铒铍篦 钺羼镥麒腓 翦牝桠眍耱 龛麇耜铋 觐黻箴屙鲨 忸 祉钽桴 耱疣磬 青镟溧 耦 耱铕铐 扈沭囗蝾 桤 耱疣 蝠弪泐 扈疣. 袜镳桁屦, 铖眍忭 漕 邂痤镥轳觇 镱 镳铊聃铈溴龛 眍耦 杨邃桧屙睇 仳囹圊, 枢磬溴, 棱耱疣腓, 洛腓觐狃栩囗梃 礤觐蝾瘥 漯筱桴 玎镟漤 钺耱忄 耦牮帙噱蝰 镱 戾疱 痤耱 钺 麒耠屙眍耱 磬皴脲龛 怦脲漶蜮桢 铖簌羼蜮脲龛 觐眦 1960- 泐漕 腓徨疣朦眍 桁扈沭圉桀眄铋 镱腓蜩觇. 蒡 镳钺脲禧 怙铍礤 疱嚯 溧驽 潆 爨骖痂蜞痦 沭箫 磬皴脲龛, 潆 觐疱眄 龛麇耜桴 戾睃眈蜮 铐 怆尻篁 玎 耦犷 妁 躞澍桢 镱耠邃耱忤 (黩 箧 桤忮耱眍 磬 镳铗驽龛 祉钽桴 忮觐 镳桁屙栩咫 龛麇耜桁 滂囫镱疣). 悟耋蝰蜮桢 翦牝桠眍泐 觐眚痤 蝈痧栩铕梃 镱恹弪 痂耜 祉钽铑狃噻眍泐 镱疣犷龛, 镳铖蝠囗耱忮眄钽 镥疱戾龛 爨疸桧嚯桤圉梃 眍耦. 洛顸 镳铠臌 铒 麇腩忮麇耱忄, 蜞赕 铒 皴泐漤邈 漤 镱赅琨忄, 黩 蝈痧栩铕   疱耋瘃, 礤钺躅滂禧 潆 钺羼镥麇龛 漕脬钼疱戾眄 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦.

 

澎觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃

左怦蜮栩咫铖螯 (玮桁铖螯) 龛麇耜桴 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 镱 铗眍龛 桁扈沭圉梃 玎忤耔 铗 蝾泐, 耋耱怏 腓 戾踵龛珈 钽疣龛麇龛 痤耱 麒耠屙眍耱 镱矬鲨, 疱珞朦蜞蝈 溴轳蜮 觐蝾瘥 犷脲 镳钿箨蜩忭 (镫钿钼栩) 桁扈沭囗螓 狍潴 玎戾螯 噌铕桡屙睇 (磬蜩忭) 眍. 锗痄桧 [13] 篁忮疰溧弪, 黩 耦怵屐屙眍 扈疱 犷朦眈蜮 镳桡钿睇 潆 骅珥 戾耱 箧 玎皴脲眍. 令脲 蝾泐, 镱忮瘐眍耱 清祀 邋 铗溴朦睇 篦囫蜿钼 桁邋 铒疱溴脲眄簋 屐觐耱. 蒡 屐觐耱  爨犟桁嚯 麒耠屙眍耱 磬皴脲龛, 恹 觐蝾痤 镥疱耱帼 疱嚯桤钼囹 蜞觇 徉珙恹 镱蝠遽眍耱, 赅 玎眄铖螯 铗 泐腩溧 桦 镥疱磬皴脲眄铖蜩. 犷脲 痤觐 耢脲 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃   镳邃咫 麒耠屙眍耱 忪妁噱祛 麇腩忮麇耜铋 镱矬鲨, 镳 觐蝾痤 妁 祛驽 铖簌羼蜮螯 邋 襦祛疱泱鲨 恹 觐蝾痤 膻犷 溧朦礤轼栝 镳桊铖 麒耠屙眍耱 镱矬鲨 觐祜屙耔痼弪 耢屦蝽铖螯. 义蹴铍钽梓羼觇 镳钽疱耨, 觐礤黜, 祛驽 镳桠钿栩 筲咫梓屙棹 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃, 钿磬觐 铗 镳铞羼 礤 徨耜铐鬻屙.

. 予腭铐 桉镱朦珞弪 漯筱铄 钺铖眍忄龛 蝾泐 驽 镱腩驽龛: 清祀 镥疱磬皴脲磬 邋 耦怵屐屙眍 磬皴脲龛, 铟邂桎眍, 箧 礤篑蝾轺桠. 疋铊 纛痨箅桊钼赅 铐 铖眍恹忄弪 磬 镱蜩 觐腩汨麇耜栝 耠邃, 铉磬鬣屐 耩邃睨 镫铢噤 镳钿箨蜩忭 珏戾朦 戾腙钼钿栝 祛 疣聍弪 磬 钿眍泐 骅蝈 清祀, 礤钺躅滂祗 潆 镳铊玮钿耱忄 镨, 镱塍麇龛 屦汨, 忸潲, 潆 耱痤栩咫蜮 骅朦, 蝠囗耧铕蝽钽 耦钺龛, 觐祆屦鲨 篁桦桤圉梃 铗躅漕. 疣玮桠帼祚 扈疱 铍钽梓羼觇 耠邃 磬 潴 磬皴脲龛 耦耱噔弪 铌铍 1 汔, 蝾沅 赅 杨邃桧屙睇 仳囹圊 箧 皴轺囫 铐 漕耱桡噱 9,6 汔. 篷腓 赅驿 骅蝈朦 清祀 狍溴 镱蝠遽螯 疱耋瘃 磬 箴钼礤 耩邃礤泐 骅蝈 杨邃桧屙睇 仳囹钼, 蝾 潆 怦邈 磬皴脲龛 镱蝠遽箦蝰 妁 麇螓疱 蜞觇 驽 镫囗弪. 麒耠屙眍耱 磬皴脲龛, 箴钼龛 镱蝠遽脲龛 疱耋瘃钼 磬耱 怵屐 镳钿铍驵 疣耱, 眍  镳铊聃钿栩 玎 聍弪 耦牮帙屙 徼铍钽梓羼觐泐 疣珥铑狃噻 钺泐 觐腚囡襦 耧铖钺眍耱 铖桉蝈 清祀 忸耨蜞眍怆屙棹. 赅觐-蝾 蝾麝 磬皴脲龛 清祀 漕腈眍 磬鬣螯 耦牮帙囹  鲥脲磬镳噔脲眄 桦 疱珞朦蜞蝈 羿蜞朦睇 耦猁蜩. 软 耠钼囔, 耩邃龛 疣珈屦 皴禳 漕腈屙 耥桤栩 漕 麇螓疱 麇腩忮 ( 耩邃礤 皴禳 漕腈眍 猁螯 2,1 疱徨黻), 黩 镱玮铍桦 猁 镳尻疣蜩螯 睇礤栝 痤耱 麇腩忮麇耜铋 镱矬鲨.

锗痄桧 [14] 箨噻噱 磬 蝾, 黩 潆 觐眚痤 痤耱 麒耠屙眍耱 磬皴脲龛 忸 怦屐 扈疱 礤钺躅滂祛, 黩钺 赅驿铄 泐耋溧瘃蜮 钽疣龛麒忄腩 筲咫梓屙桢 疋铄泐 磬皴脲龛. 武磬觐 钺耱忸, 忭邃邋 戾蝾潲 觐眚痤 疋铄 麒耠屙眍耱, 耱囗钼栩 玮桁 潆 桁扈沭圉梃, 黩 镳桠钿栩 铗眍耔蝈朦眍祗 耦牮帙屙棹 麒耠屙眍耱 磬蜩忭钽 磬皴脲龛 磬 溧眄铋 蝈痧栩铕梃. 锗痄桧 礤 疣耨爨蝠桠噱 龛麇耜桢 沐礤蜩麇耜桢 桧蝈疱覃, 钿磬觐 玎戾鬣弪, 黩 蜞觐 耔蝮圉梃 疣耧豚蜞 玎 镳铞羼覃 桁扈沭圉梃 磬栳铍邋 驽臌 沭箸铎 驽 磬 镫鬻 镱蝈眦栲朦睇 痤滂蝈脲,  礤觐蝾瘥 桤 龛 桤-玎 怦咫屙 桁扈沭囗蝾 漕腈睇 狍潴 磬 怵屐 铗腩骅螯 痤驿屙桢 耠邃簋泐 疱徨黻 桦 忸怦 铗赅玎螯 铗 钽. 锗痄桧 桉耠邃钼嚯 腓 桧滂忤潴嚯簋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱, 眍, 赅 禧 筲桎桁 龛驽, 铒囫眍耱 桁扈沭圉梃 潆 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 眍襦 鲥腩 珥圜栩咫 犷朦, 礤驽腓 潆 赅驿铋 铗溴朦眍 忡蝾 皴禳.

褥扈沭囗螓 耱囗钼蝰 镳梓桧铋 桤戾礤龛 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃 耱疣睇 镱 铗眍龛 磬蜩忭铋 (觐疱眄铋) 镱矬鲨. 篷腓 桁扈沭囗螓 篦囫蜮簋 铐铎桕 蜞觇 纛痨圊, 觐蝾瘥 礤疋铋耱忮眄 觐疱眄铎 磬皴脲龛, 蝾 镳铊聃钿栩 筲咫梓屙桢 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃[5]. 篷腓 驽 桁扈沭囗螓 桉镱朦珞 疱耋瘃 磬皴脲龛 (觐蝾瘥 桉镱朦珞弪 觐疱眄铋 眍) 桦 怆 磬 耩邃睨 镳钿箨蜩忭铖螯 忪妁帼 镱矬鲨, 蝾  镳桠钿栩 耥桄屙棹 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃, 蜞 赅 铐 玎龛爨 戾耱 镱蝈眦栲朦睇 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 觐疱眄钽 磬皴脲龛.

念矬耱桁, 黩 桁扈沭囗螓 聃钿睇 镱 疋铊 蝠遽钼囗 忸珈铈眍耱 觐疱眄 骅蝈扈 黩 耋祆囵睇 镱蝾 桁扈沭圉梃 耦耱噔弪 10 螓. 桧滂忤漕. 蒡 镳桠邃弪 耥桄屙棹 翦牝桠眍 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃 耱疣睇 磬 10 螓. 邃桧桷 桦 礤耜铍 犷脲, 羼腓 桁扈沭囗蝾 耩噔礤龛 磬蜩忭 磬皴脲龛屐 箴钼屙 痤驿噱祛耱 恹, 戾礤 麇 磬 10 螓. 邃桧桷, 羼腓 痤驿噱祛耱 桁扈沭囗蝾 龛驽. 昨钺 箫痤耱栩 铗 镳桁屦, 镳邃镱腩骅, 黩 痤驿噱祛耱 桁扈沭囗蝾 磬蜩忭钽 磬皴脲龛 钿桧嚓钼. 铋 耔蝮圉梃 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃 潆 觐疱眄钽 眍襦 镳铖蝾 箪屙栩 磬 10 螓. 邃桧桷. 篷腓 镳 铎 桁扈沭囗螓 磬蜩忭铄 磬皴脲龛 镳桧噤脲驵 钿眍祗 眍耋, 蝾 磬蜩忭钽 磬皴脲龛 礤 狍溴 镳铊聃钿栩 耥桄屙 龛麇耜钽 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦. 武磬 痤漶蜮屙磬 沭箫镟 玎戾弪 漯筱簋 镳邃咫圊 蝾泐 驽 襦祛泐 眍襦. 皖 羼腓 桁扈沭囗螓 铗眍蝰 漯筱铋 龛麇耜铋 沭箫镥, 铖钺屙眍 铟屙 箐嚯屙眍 沐礤蜩麇耜, 蝾 龛麇耜栝 沐礤蜩麇耜栝 桧蝈疱 赅驿钽 麟屙 磬蜩忭铋 镱矬鲨 狍溴 箪屙囹 耦铗忮蝰蜮梃 耦 耱屣屙 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 箐嚯屙眍耱 (沐礤蜩麇耜铋 滂耱囗鲨). 袜耜铍 珥圜桁 狍潴 蜞觇 镱蝈痂? 悟忮 磬 铗 忸镳铖 祛骓 镱塍麒螯, 铞屙桠 怆龛 桁扈沭圉梃 磬 沐礤蜩麇耜桢 桧蝈疱覃 眍襦, 蜞赕 磬 钺耱忸 鲥腩 磬 溴祛沭圄梓羼牦 镱腓蜩牦 忭篁痂 钺耱忄.

 

缅礤蜩麇耜桢 桧蝈疱覃 痤漶蜮

羽钼屙 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 眍耦 祛驽 猁螯 疣耨麒蜞 磬 铖眍忄龛 溧眄 镱矬鲨铐眍 沐礤蜩觇  磬箨, 篑蜞磬怆桠帼 钺耥彘 疣耧疱溴脲龛 沐眍 镱矬鲨. 暑腓麇耱忮眄 踵疣牝屦桉蜩赅 镳祛泐 痤漶蜮 戾驿 桧滂忤溧扈  觐翳鲨屙 痤漶蜮. 蒡铗 镱赅玎蝈朦 痤觐 桉镱朦珙忄腭 漕 1980- 泐漕. 雾 蜞赕 磬 镳桁屙屙桢 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 桎屐桀腩汨 [15]. 武磬觐 桉镱朦珙忄龛 觐翳鲨屙蝾 痤漶蜮 钽疣龛麇眍 桉耠邃钼囗桢 铗眍龛 戾驿 沭箫镟扈 忭篁痂 镱矬鲨 桦 戾驿 疱汨铐嚯 觌囫蝈疣扈 犭桤觇 沭箫 镱矬鲨. 碾 鲥脲 磬耱 疣犷螓 礤钺躅滂 汶钺嚯 钺珙 桤戾礤龛 痤漶蜮 戾驿 镱矬鲨扈,   镱玮铍栩 铞屙栩 翦牝 铗 桁扈沭圉梃 龛麇耜 犭桤觇 桦 龛麇耜 箐嚯屙睇 沭箫 磬皴脲龛. 湾觐蝾瘥 龛麇耜桢 沭箫稃 犭桤觐痤漶蜮屙睇 镳铊聃钿 铗 钿眍 疱汨铐嚯铋 桦 觐眚桧屙蜞朦眍 镱矬鲨. 酿筱桢 沭箫稃 犷脲 箐嚯屙 漯筱 铗 漯筱. 耦驵脲龛, 邃桧 汶钺嚯 钺珙 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 痤漶蜮 磬 镱矬鲨铐眍 箴钼礤 扈疱 镱赅 礤 铖簌羼蜮脲.

汶钺嚯铎 钺珙疱, 皲咫囗眍 枢忄腚-阳铕鲥 耦噔蝾疣扈 [16], 疣耨祛蝠屙 礤 痤漶蜮, 沐礤蜩麇耜 桤戾眵桠铖螯, 桦 沐礤蜩麇耜 滂耱囗鲨. 橡噔溧, 耋耱怏弪 桤忮耱磬 忡噼祛疋琰 戾驿 沐礤蜩麇耜桁 痤漶蜮铎 镱赅玎蝈扈 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 桤戾眵桠铖蜩, 黩 祛驽 猁螯 桉镱朦珙忄眍 潆 铗忮蜞 磬 镱耱噔脲眄 恹 忸镳铖. 镱矬鲨铐眍 沐礤蜩赍 觐翳鲨屙 痤漶蜮 f 戾驿 溻箪 桧滂忤溧扈 铒疱溴弪 赅 忮痤蝽铖螯 蝾泐, 黩 嚯脲朦, 耠篦嚅眍 恹溴脲眄 漤钽 铕汔龛珈, 狍溴 桎屙蜩黜 嚯脲腓 蝾 驽 腩牦皴 躔铎铖铎 怛铕钽 桧滂忤溧. 蒡 铒疱溴脲龛 犭桤觐 镳邃腩驽眄铎 绵扈朦蝾眍 [17] 铕桡桧嚯铎 觐翳鲨屙蝮 痤漶蜮 r (relatedness), 桉镱朦珞屐铎 觌囫耔麇耜桴 纛痨箅桊钼赅 蝈铕梃 怅膻麇眄铋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 (inclusive fitness theory). 绵扈朦蝾 铒篑赅 镱耥屙桢, 黩 襦禧 镳铖螓 耠篦 2f = r (镳 镳祛 痤漶蜮). 耦怵屐屙睇 蝈铕 镱矬鲨铐眍 沐礤蜩觇 钺眍 桉镱朦珞弪 觐翳鲨屙 痤漶蜮 f (kinship), 礤 汔扈朦蝾眍怦觇 觐翳鲨屙 痤漶蜮 r (relatedness), 镱耜铍 镱耠邃龛 爨蝈爨蜩麇耜 铒疱溴弪 礤 耱铍 麇蜿. 绵扈朦蝾 蜞赕 镥疱铒疱溴腓 怅膻麇眄簋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 (inclusive fitness) 赅 镱蜩, 疋玎眄铄 沐礤嚯钽梓羼觇 痤漶蜮铎. 皖忸 铒疱溴脲龛 镱玮铍桦 疣耨麒螓忄螯 痤漶蜮 徨 漕镱腠栩咫 溧眄 镱 沐礤嚯钽梓羼觇 疋. 缅礤蜩麇耜铄 疣耨蝾龛 Fst 疱珞朦蜞蝈 铌噻噱蝰 钿眍怵屐屙眍 戾痤 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 桤戾眵桠铖蜩 戾痤 痤漶蜮 [18].

袜 铋 铖眍忮 .锗痫屙滂磴 [19] 镳邃腩骅 觐腓麇耱忮眄 踵疣牝屦桤钼囹 痤漶蜮 镱 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 桤戾眵桠铖蜩, 镳铊玮钿 疣聍弪 镱 纛痨箅

 

fo = FST + (1 FST)[ 1/(2N  1)],

 

fo  腩赅朦睇 觐翳鲨屙 痤漶蜮; FST  沐礤蜩麇耜 桤戾眵桠铖螯 戾蜞-镱矬鲨 N  钺 麒耠屙眍耱 镱矬鲨. 橡 犷朦 N, 麒耠屙眍耱 镱矬鲨 耦怵屐屙睇 眍耦 忮腓赅, 镳桠邃屙眢 恹 纛痨箅 祛骓 疋羼蜩 箫痤眄铋:

 

fo = FST .

 

亦觇 钺疣珙,  纛痨箅 镱玮铍弪 铞屙栩 耩邃礤 痤漶蜮 戾驿 腩赅朦睇扈 镱矬鲨扈 磬 铖眍忄龛 珥圜屙栝 FST.

如忮耱眍, 黩 痤漶蜮 溻篚 耠篦嚅眍 恹狃囗睇 桧滂忤漕 镱矬鲨 疣忭 眢膻. 杨铗忮蝰蜮屙眍 痤漶蜮 溻篚 耔犭桧泐 (镱腠 狃囹/皴耱屦) 疣忭 0,25. 锐躅漤 觐翳鲨屙 痤漶蜮 绵扈朦蝾磬, 铖眍忄眄 磬 沐礤嚯钽梓羼觐 痤漶蜮, 镳桧桁嚯 潆 耔犭桧泐 疣忭 0,5. 武磬觐 镱玟礤 噔蝾 镥疱铒疱溴腓 痤漶蜮 赅 耱囹桉蜩麇耜栝 镱赅玎蝈朦 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 聃钿耱忄 [20], 觐翳鲨屙 耱嚯 怃忸 戾睃. 橡 桉镱朦珙忄龛 钽 眍忸泐 铒疱溴脲龛 溻篚 耠篦嚅眍 忡螓 桧滂忤漕 祛驽 磬犭囹 溧驽 铗痂鲟蝈朦睇 觐翳鲨屙 痤漶蜮  蝈 耠篦, 觐沅 铐 桁妣 戾睃 钺 沐眍, 礤驽腓  踵疣牝屦眍 耩邃礤 潆 桴 钺 镱矬鲨. 项腩骅蝈朦睇 觐翳鲨屙螓 痤漶蜮 磬犭帼蝰 耠篦, 觐沅 桧滂忤潲 桁妣 犷朦 钺 沐眍 耩噔礤龛 耦 耩邃龛 箴钼礤 潆 镱矬鲨 鲥腩. 亦觇 钺疣珙, 礤钺躅滂祛 铗腓鬣螯 痤漶蜮 (kinship) 铗 痤漶蜮屙眍耱 镱 镳铊聃铈溴龛 (relatedness-by-descent). 绵扈朦蝾 钺钺  耠邃簋 钺疣珙:

 

-玎 蝾泐, 黩 镱蜩 怅膻麇眄铋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 (inclusive fitness) 蜞 猁腩 钺耥屙 怙屦恹, 铐 鬣耱 疣耨爨蝠桠嚯铖 赅麇耱忮 痤漶蜮屙眍泐 铗犷疣. 蒡 聍栩嚯铖 嚯屦磬蜩忸 沭箫镱忸祗 铗犷痼 赅 戾踵龛珈 耱囗钼脲龛 嚯痼桉蜩麇耜钽 耦鲨嚯钽 镱忮溴龛 镳铞羼皴 羼蝈耱忮眄钽 铗犷疣. 武磬觐 痤漶蜮 漕腈眍 疣耨爨蝠桠囹 腓 赅 钿桧 桤 耧铖钺钼 镱玷蜩忭铋 疱沭羼耔 沐眍蜩镟 疱鲨镨屙蜞. 蒡 镱玷蜩忭 疱沭羼耔 骅珥屙眍 礤钺躅滂爨 潆 疣玮栩 嚯痼桤爨. 亦觇 钺疣珙, 觐眦屣鲨 怅膻麇眄铋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 (inclusive fitness) 铌噻噱蝰 犷脲 钺, 怦孱狷屐膻 礤 钽疣龛麒忄弪 蝾朦觐 痤漶蜮屙睇 铗犷痤旎 [21].

 

令脲 蝾泐, 惕 绵扈朦蝾 [22] 镳钼咫 钺珙 怦艴 嚯屦磬蜩忭 铒疱溴脲龛 痤漶蜮, 耵铕祗腓痤忄眄 磬耱祗 怵屐屙, 镳桫腓 玎觌屙棹, 黩 怦  镱蜩 忤忄脲眚睇. 亦觇 钺疣珙, 蝈铕 怅膻麇眄铋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 (inclusive fitness) 礤 钽疣龛麒忄弪 疋铄 镳桁屙屙梃 蝾朦觐 钺耥屙桢 嚯痼桤爨 沐礤嚯钽梓羼觇 痤漶蜮屙龛觐, 眍 祛驽 桉镱朦珙忄螯 镱 铗眍龛 膻猁 桧滂忤溧, 桁妣 箴钼屙 痤漶蜮 恹 耩邃礤泐 潆 镱矬鲨, 溧驽 羼腓 桴 痤漶蜮屙睇 疋玷 忮顸爨 箐嚯屙睇 礤 祛泱 猁螯 漕牦戾眚桊钼囗. 蒡 铖忸犷驿噱 桉耠邃钼囹咫, 镳铊玮钿泐 囗嚯桤, 铗 钽疣龛麇龛 蜩镟 耠篦 桎屙蜩黜铖蜩 镱蝾礻钼 镱玮铍弪 囗嚯桤桊钼囹 怅膻麇眄簋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 (inclusive fitness) 蝾朦觐 磬 铖眍忄龛 溧眄 沐礤蜩觇. 铃 铋 犷脲 痤觐 觐眦屣鲨 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 镳祛 囗嚯桤 礤忸珈铈屙 忸钺, 镱耜铍 沐礤嚯钽梓羼觇 溧眄 忮顸爨 钽疣龛麇眄. 锗痫屙滂磴 钺耥弪 耢 蜞觐 蝈痨桧铍钽梓羼觐 镱潇屙 耠邃簋 钺疣珙:

 

蝾 狍溴 铉磬鬣螯, 黩 嚯痼桉蜩麇耜铄 镱祛汔邋 镱忮溴龛 镳邃咫圊 痤漶蜮屙眍 镱溷痼镲 ( 蝾 麒耠 眍襦) 狍溴 恹狃嚓钼囹 磬 腩赅朦眍 箴钼礤, 羼腓 腩赅朦眍 痤漶蜮 桁邋 铗痂鲟蝈朦睇 珥嚓 (.. 羼腓 邈 箴钼屙 龛驽, 麇 耩邃礤 潆 镱矬鲨), 腓犷 祛驽 耱囗钼栩 镳邃戾蝾 镱玷蜩忭钽 铗犷疣, 羼腓 箴钼屙 痤漶蜮 戾驿 漕眍痤 疱鲨镨屙蝾 恹 镱 耩噔礤龛 耦 耩邃龛 潆 镱矬鲨杌 [23].

 

骂玮疣顸 纛痨箅 锗痫屙滂磴, 祛骓 恹忮耱 钺钺眄铄 镳噔桦: 沐礤蜩麇耜 桤戾眵桠铖螯 戾驿 镱矬鲨扈 疣忭 镱赅玎蝈膻 痤漶蜮 戾驿 龛扈. 蓄漶蜮 镳邃咫圊 眍襦, 蜞觇 钺疣珙, 忄瘘桊箦 镳铒铕鲨铐嚯 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 桤戾眵桠铖蜩 戾驿 溧眄 眍耦 觐黻箴桊簋 龛 眍耦. 疱珞朦蜞蝈 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 龛麇耜铄 痤漶蜮 祛驽 猁螯 镳铊腚蝠桊钼囗 珥囔屙栩 汨镱蝈蜩麇耜铎 镳桁屦铎 嚯痼桤爨 [24] 戾驿 痤漶蜮屙龛赅扈. 袜镱祉 邈: 锗脘 聍栩嚯 徼铍钽梓羼觐 耢脲 噤囡蜩忭 镱驽痱忸忄螯 疋铄 骅珥 潆 耧囫屙 溻篚 蝾眢 狃囹 桦 忸顸扈 蝾眢 牦珏眍  溻铪痤漤 狃囹. 橡 铎 铒篑赅腩顸 徉珙忸 篑腩忤, 黩 痤漶蜮 戾驿 溻箪 耠篦嚅睇扈 桧滂忤溧扈 镱矬鲨 镳桧桁噱蝰 疣忭 眢膻. 翌沅 溻铪痤漤 狃囹 痤漶蜮 耦耱噔弪 1/8 礤 噌耦膻蝽铎 耢脲, 耩噔礤龛 眢脲恹 徉珙恹 箴钼礤 镱矬鲨. 绵扈朦蝾 镳桧桁嚯 痤漶蜮 溻篚 耠篦嚅睇 麟屙钼 镱矬鲨 疣忭 眢膻. 皖, 赅 禧 箧 忤溴腓, 镳 篦弪 桤戾眵桠铖蜩 戾蜞镱矬鲨 耋耱怏弪 忮痤蝽铖螯 蝾泐, 黩 痤漶蜮 溻篚 耠篦嚅睇 麟屙钼 镱矬鲨 狍溴 犷朦 眢. 绵扈朦蝾 [25] 篁忮疰溧, 黩 忭篁痂沭箫镱忸 觐翳鲨屙 痤漶蜮 (relatedness coefficient) 祛驽 漕耱桡囹 忮腓麒睇 0,5, 黩 忤忄脲眚眍 觐翳鲨屙蝮 痤漶蜮 (kinship coefficient), 疣忭铎 0,25, .. 箴钼睨 痤漶蜮 戾驿 耔犭桧汔扈. 纂屙 皴戾 镱漕犴 镱矬鲨 狍潴 桁弪 溧驽 犷脲 恹耦觇 镱赅玎蝈腓 痤漶蜮.

昨 镳铊珙 猁, 羼腓 猁 扈 耦耱 蝾朦觐 桤 牦珏眍? 蝾麝 琊屙 铞屙觇 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 桴 痤漶蜮 猁腩 猁 疣忭 眢膻, 蝾沅 潆 龛 猁腩 猁 礤噤囡蜩忭 镳怆螯 嚯痼桤 镱 铗眍龛 漯筱 漯筱. 铎 汨镱蝈蜩麇耜铎 镳桁屦 礤 耋耱怏弪 觐黻箴桊簋 沭箫稃, 耩噔礤龛 觐蝾痤 牦珏眍 猁 猁 镱恹眄 箴钼屙 痤漶蜮. 冷囡蜩忭 嚯痼桤 蝾沅 钽疣龛麒忄腭 猁 漯铎 皴禳, 沅 痤漶蜮 4 疣玎 恹, 礤驽腓 痤漶蜮 戾驿 牦珏磬扈 ( 潆 桎屙蜩黜 犭桤礤鲱  8 疣 恹).

篷腓 猁 扈疱 猁 蝾朦觐 钿桧 眍, 蝾 翦牝桠眍 痤漶蜮 耠篦嚅睇 镟 桧滂忤漕 蜞赕 猁腩 猁 疣忭 眢膻 潆 玎溧 铞屙觇 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦. 翌朦觐 沐礤嚯钽梓羼觇 痤漶蜮屙龛觇 桁咫 猁 犷脲 恹耦觇 觐翳鲨屙螓 痤漶蜮. 翌沅 噤囡蜩忭 嚯痼桤 耋耱忸忄 猁 腓 戾驿 痤滂蝈扈 桴 镱蝾祚蜮铎  狃囹扈, 牦珏磬扈 .. 皖 疱嚯铖蜩 扈 耦耱铊 桤 忮腓觐泐 祉铈羼蜮 龛麇耜桴 沭箫. 暑沅 疣耨爨蝠桠噱蝰 扈痤忄 镱矬鲨 鲥腩, 痤漶蜮 耠篦嚅睇 镟 桧滂忤漕 镳桧桁噱蝰 玎 眢朦. 铋 耔蝮圉梃 忸珥桕噱 忸镳铖: 赅觐 箴钼屙 痤漶蜮 镟 桧滂忤漕, 耠篦嚅眍 恹狃囗睇 桤 疣珥 龛麇耜桴 沭箫? 碾 铗忮蜞 磬 铗 忸镳铖 耠邃箦 钺疣蜩螯 溧眄 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 桤戾眵桠铖蜩 镱矬鲨.

 

褥扈沭圉, 沐礤蜩麇耜铄 疣耨蝾龛 篁疣蜞 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦

泥眄 枢忄腚-阳铕鳆 耦噔蝾痤 ([26]; 蜞犭.1) 箨噻帼 磬 蝾, 黩 沐礤蜩麇耜桢 滂耱囗鲨 FST 戾驿 戾汔-镱矬鲨扈 (牮箫睇扈 眍襦扈, 耦耱扈 桤 溴蜿钼 耦蝈 扈腚桀眍 桧滂忤漕) 忄瘘桊簋 铗 0,0021 (囗汶梓囗 镱 铗眍龛 腓珀铕钿耱忮眄 溧蝼囗囔) 漕 0,43 (耦忸牦镯 镱矬鲨 噔耱疣腓轳觇 噌铕桡屙钼 镱 铗眍龛 镨沆 镫屐屙 灬篁 鲥眚疣朦眍 吏痂赍). 鲥腩 痤漶蜮 戾驿 噔蝾躜铐睇扈 镱矬鲨扈 镳邃咫圊 钿眍泐 疱汨铐 忮腓觐, 蝾沅 赅 眍覃, 骅怏 磬 疣珥 觐眚桧屙蜞, 沐礤蜩麇耜 忮顸爨 箐嚯屙 漯筱 铗 漯筱. 锐镱朦珞 溻 镳桠邃屙睇 恹 镳桁屦, 镱耥桁 珥圜屙 觐翳鲨屙蝾 痤漶蜮 桤 蜞犭. 1.

 

亦犭桷 1

 

缅礤蜩麇耜桢 疣耨蝾龛 FST 戾驿 26 戾汔-镱矬鲨扈 麇腩忮赅*

 

 

理汶

软 ()

棱耱

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

658

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

188

697

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

94

776

885

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

714

1232

801

1495

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2202

1078

1748

1246

2663

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2241

1060

1796

1267

2588

154

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1779

709

1454

880

2138

229

158

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2361

1345

2252

1905

3089

718

1059

1056

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2668

1475

1807

1950

2996

681

905

933

137

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2446

1538

1951

1977

2766

866

1282

987

961

946

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3364

1602

2480

2064

3872

852

1155

1023

743

814

99

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2882

1423

1733

1398

2568

509

681

827

218

170

1093

957

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1658

1216

1365

1434

1743

1130

1489

1173

1175

1001

264

455

1251

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2913

1770

2299

1922

3776

872

908

909

1020

1218

552

625

737

485

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2486

1386

2163

1448

2989

638

821

710

627

732

1259

1225

728

1189

1044

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2963

1664

1958

2231

3384

847

1092

983

541

498

254

105

705

635

315

1109

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1474

922

1299

1307

1965

418

285

246

1481

1063

1831

1726

1049

1784

1634

903

1675

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1708

909

1458

1025

1462

293

179

238

1176

947

1463

1390

680

1628

1279

820

1306

184

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

理汶

2288

1163

1487

1197

2373

280

197

236

1244

982

1100

1143

896

1275

1117

866

1152

119

21

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

1479

892

1356

1068

1735

272

70

129

1175

904

1482

1355

735

1482

1109

794

1095

231

191

204

0

 

 

 

 

 

2292

1234

1794

1181

2931

261

133

208

1145

936

1446

1382

905

1599

1136

949

1236

141

72

51

77

0

 

 

 

 

软 ()

2237

1475

2293

2143

3499

1089

1199

1037

658

790

1522

1323

970

1731

1527

859

1192

1539

1266

1246

1271

1198

0

 

 

 

3251

2116

2693

2217

3329

940

1234

1225

791

843

1595

1417

545

1617

1597

796

1304

1637

1180

1185

1254

1135

903

0

 

 

2649

1414

1992

1940

3136

927

1142

869

823

890

860

589

969

849

650

1147

508

1406

1210

991

1096

1215

1312

1415

0

 

棱耱

3272

2131

2694

2705

4287

1176

1546

1408

821

850

1699

1314

781

1665

1300

1580

1081

1949

1400

1534

1498

1413

1360

1230

1145

0

____________________

* 袜玮囗 镱矬鲨 溧睇 耦牮帙屙眍 忤溴:   沭箫镟 徉眚;   忸耱铟睇 圄痂赅眦;   玎镟漤 圄痂赅眦; 燕  镫屐屙 ;   镨沆彖 灬篁; 软  桧滂轹; 瑞  桊囗鳆; 鲤  囵噌 岭桄礤泐 骂耱铌;   镱眦;   觐疱轹;   牾戾瘥; 亦  蜞轹;   蝮磴篑-爨睃麈箴耜桢 磬痤潲; 锑  爨豚玷轹; 澡  翳腓镲桧鳆;   皴忮痦 蟒痍; 疏  睇 觇蜞轹; 拎  徉耜; 泥  溧蝼囗; 理汶  囗汶梓囗; 灭  沭尻;   栩嚯眦; 软 (桧溴轹 彦忮痦铋 漓屦桕 (囔屦桧潲);   觇祛覃; 项  镱腓礤玷轹; 棱耱  噔耱疣腓轳觇 噌铕桡屙. 洛腓麒睇 箪眍驽睇 磬 10000 潆 箐钺耱忄 黩屙.

: Cavalli-Sforza L. L., Menozzi P., Piazza A. The history and geography of human genes.  . 75.

 

念矬耱桁, 黩 怦屐桊磬 镱矬鲨 镱腠铖螯 耦耱铊 桤 囗汶梓囗. 翌沅 痤漶蜮 膻猁 耠篦嚅睇 镟 桧滂忤漕 猁腩 猁 疣忭 眢膻. 篷腓 猁 扈 耦耱 桤 囗汶梓囗 溧蝼囗 ( 痤漶蜮 耠篦嚅睇 镟 桧滂忤漕 蜞赕 镳桧桁嚯铖 猁 玎 眢朦), 蝾 镟瘥  镳邃耱噔栩咫 赅驿钽 桤 桴 溻篚 眍耦 (膻猁 溻铄 囗汶梓囗 腓犷 膻猁 溻铄 溧蝼囗) 桁咫 猁 礤珥圜栩咫 镱腩骅蝈朦睇 觐翳鲨屙 痤漶蜮, 疣忭 0,0021 ( 蜞犭. 1 忮腓麒睇 箪眍驽睇 磬 10000 潆 箐钺耱忄 黩屙). 蒡 礤耜铍 犷脲 蝈耥铄 痤漶蜮, 礤驽腓, 磬镳桁屦, 痤漶蜮 镱蝾礻钼 忸顸祛 镱觐脲龛 镱 镳祛 腓龛 钿眍泐 镳-镳-镳-镳-镳-镳-镳囵钿栩咫. 亦觇 钺疣珙, 忤漤, 黩 囗汶梓囗 溧蝼囗 铌噻帼蝰 铟屙 犭桤觐 痤漶蜮 戾驿 耦犷. 棱耱疣腓轳觇 噌铕桡屙 (赅 篑疱漤屙磬 龛麇耜 沭箫镟) 磬痤 灬篁, 镳铈桠帼 皱眚疣朦眍 吏痂赍, 耦铗忮蝰蜮梃 溧眄 枢忄腚-阳铕鳆 沐礤蜩麇耜 铟屙 箐嚯屙 漯筱 铗 漯筱. 汨镱蝈蜩麇耜铋 戾汔-镱矬鲨, 耦耱 蝾朦觐 桤 灬篁 噔耱疣腓轹邂, 溻 耠篦嚅眍 恹狃囗睇 桧滂忤溧-噔耱疣腓轹 铌噫篁 戾驿 耦犷 痤漶蜮 磬耱铍 犭桤觐, 黩 桴 祛骓 狍溴 聍栩囹 犭桤礤鲟扈 ( 觐翳鲨屙蝾 痤漶蜮, 疣忭 0,43, 蝾沅 赅 桎屙蜩黜 犭桤礤鳆 桁妣 觐翳鲨屙 痤漶蜮 0,5).

琼圜屙桢 疣耨蝾龛 FST, 镳桠邃屙睇 蜞犭. 1, 镱玮铍 铞屙栩 耱屣屙 篁疣螓 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 疱珞朦蜞蝈 钿眍磬镳噔脲眄铋 扈沭圉梃 篑腩忭铋 沭箫稃 10 螓. 麇腩忮 戾驿 26 磬蜩忭 (觐疱眄) 龛麇耜桁 镱矬鲨扈. 篦弪铎 钽疣龛麇眄铋 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃 觐翳鲨屙螓 痤漶蜮 铉磬鬣, 黩 镳 镳铟桴 疣忭 篑腩忤 桁扈沭圉 铌噻噱 蝈 犷朦 礤汔蜩忭 翦牝 磬 沐礤蜩麇耜桢 桧蝈疱覃 镱矬鲨-疱鲨镨屙蜞, 麇 犷脲 桁扈沭囗螓 沐礤蜩麇耜 箐嚯屙 漯筱 铗 漯筱.

项龛爨龛 珥圜屙 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 铌噻噱蝰 妁 犷脲 恹耦觇, 羼腓 恹疣玷螯 篁疣蝮 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 礤 耠篦嚅睇 邃桧桷圊, 忤忄脲眚 觐腓麇耱忄 礤痤驿屙睇 溴蝈 ( 邃桧桷圊 麒耠屙眍耱 狍潴泐 镱蝾祚蜮). 祛溴腓 绵扈朦蝾磬 [27] 礤觐屐 泐痤潢 痤漶蜮 耠篦嚅睇 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 钿眍泐 眍襦 祛驽 忸琊囫蜞螯 漕 箴钼 痤漶蜮 戾驿 痤滂蝈扈 溴螯扈 牮箫眍 耢屮囗眍 镱矬鲨. 绵扈朦蝾 玎戾鬣, 黩 铎 耠篦噱 疱嚯铄 痤漶蜮 痤滂蝈脲 溴蝈 忸琊囫蝈 妁 犷脲, 眍 礤 箨噻嚯, 漕 赅觐泐 箴钼. 锗痫屙滂磴 镳邃豚汔弪 纛痨箅 潆 疣聍弪 桴 镱赅玎蝈脲 磬 铖眍忄龛 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 疣耨蝾龛 FST 戾驿 镱矬鲨扈:

 

f = 0,25 + 3 FST /4.

 

橡桁屙屙桢 铋 纛痨箅 镱玮铍弪 觐腓麇耱忮眄 铞屙栩 耱屣屙 忸玟彘耱忤 磬 沐礤蜩麇耜栝 桧蝈疱 耠篦嚅眍 忡蝾泐 囗汶梓囗桧 镳 玎戾龛 10 螓 龛麇耜桴 囗汶梓囗 10 螓鬣扈 龛麇耜桴 溧蝼囗 (桦 磬钺铕铗). 橡邃镱腩骅, 黩  麒耱铄 玎戾龛 黩 镱耠邃簋 镱觐脲龛 怦 桁扈沭囗螓 恹骅忄 漕 疱镳钿箨蜩忭钽 忸琊囫蜞 篦囫蜮簋 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮. 橡邃镱腩骅 蜞赕, 黩 囗汶梓囗桧 铎 镳铞羼皴 礤 蝈弪 疋铊 沐礤嚯钽梓羼觇 镱蝾礻钼 (怦 邈 溴蜩 漕骅忄 漕 疱镳钿箨蜩忭钽 忸琊囫蜞). 青戾龛 镳铊聃钿栩 疱珞朦蜞蝈 箐嚯屙 10 螓. 囗汶梓囗 怦咫屙 10 螓. 溧蝼囗. 爨蝈爨蜩麇耜桴 忮腓麒磬 镱矬鲨铐眍 沐礤蜩觇 痤漶蜮 溧蝼囗 镱 铗眍龛 镱矬鲨 囗汶梓囗 桁邋 铗痂鲟蝈朦眍 珥圜屙桢. 亦觇 钺疣珙, 恹猁蜩 囗汶梓囗 铎 镳桁屦 忮溴 耦牮帙屙棹 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 磬 10 000 × 0,0021 = 21. 橡栳帼 忪羼蝾 囗汶梓囗 溧蝼囗 溧 耦牮帙屙桢 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 妁 磬 蜞牦 驽 忮腓麒眢. 疱珞朦蜞蝈 沐礤蜩麇耜栝 桧蝈疱 耠篦嚅眍泐 觐疱眄钽 囗汶梓囗桧, 桉躅漤 镳铈桠噔泐 磬 溧眄铋 蝈痧栩铕梃, 箪屙噱蝰 磬 42 邃桧桷. 蔓疣玷  驽 篑腩忭 邃桧桷 觐腓麇耱忮 溴蝈, 镳桁屙桠 赅麇耱忮 溴腓蝈 觐翳鲨屙 痤漶蜮 戾驿 痤滂蝈脲 疱徨黻铎. 囗汶梓囗 铐 耦耱噔弪 镱 恹镳桠邃屙眍 纛痨箅

 

f = 0,25 + (0,0021 × ¾) = 0,2516.

 

亦觇 钺疣珙, 觐腓麇耱忸 溴蝈, 镱蝈眄 疱珞朦蜞蝈 玎戾彘 桁扈沭圉梃 磬 蝈痧栩铕棹 囗汶梓囗 10 螓. 溧蝼囗, 耦耱噔栩 42:0,2516, .. 镳桁屦眍 167 溴蝈 礤 狍潴 痤驿屙 疱珞朦蜞蝈 玎戾龛 鬣耱 镱矬鲨 囗汶梓囗 10 螓鬣扈 溧蝼囗. 蒡 犷朦 皴禳. 皖 镱怛铕桠 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 镱漶麇螓 铗眍龛 桁扈沭圉梃 箧 礤 溧蝼囗, , 磬镳桁屦, 10 螓. 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 徉眚 (镱聍栩噔 桴 蜞赕 钿龛 犷朦 眍耦), 镱塍麒 犷脲 怙鬻囹栝 疱珞朦蜞: 镱蝈 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 耩邃礤泐 耠篦嚅眍泐 囗汶梓囗桧 耦耱噔栩 10 854 疱徨黻. 徉眚, 羼腓 铐 狍潴 镳桧桁囹 磬 疋铪 蝈痧栩铕棹 蜞觐 驽 觐腓麇耱忸 囗汶梓囗, 铎 耠篦噱 狍溴 磬犭囹 囗嚯钽梓磬 镱 箴钼睨 镱蝈 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦.

项耠邃 镱塍麇眄 鲨麴 玎汔漕黜 恹耦赅. 枢觇 钺疣珙 镱蝈痂 铗 玎戾彘 桁扈沭圉梃 祛泱 镳邂囹 疱嚯铄 麒耠 桁扈沭囗蝾? 袜 襦祛 溴脲 钽, 觐礤黜, 礤 镳铊聃钿栩,  禧 聍栩噱 沐睇, 礤 膻溴. 绣珞朦蜞 蝾朦觐 恹汶滂 耱疣眄 桤-玎 蝾泐, 黩 疣聍弪, 桁妣 铗眍龛 沐磬, 镥疱眍蝰 磬 漯筱铋 钺牝 镱塍麇眄 忮腓麒睇 恹疣驵 麒耠 溴蝈. 纂屙 龛麇耜铋 沭箫稃 镳邃耱噔 耦犷 邃桧桷 躔囗屙 滂耱桧牝睇 沐眍 眍襦, 蜞 驽 赅 溴蜩 镫屐眄桕 镳邃耱噔 耦犷 邃桧桷 躔囗屙 沐眍 桴 痤滂蝈脲. 湾觐蝾瘥 眍覃 沐礤蜩麇耜 桉觌栩咫 疣珥铕钿睇, 桁扈沭圉 铎 耠篦噱 铌噻噱 溻铋眍 忸玟彘耱忤 磬 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱: 忸-镥疴, 玎 聍弪 箪屙屙 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 邃桧耱忄 噌铕桡屙眍 镱矬鲨 , 忸-怛铕, 玎 聍弪 玎戾龛 沐眍 恹皴腓怿桴 桧滂忤漕 犷脲 珙蜩麇耜桁 忄痂囗蜞扈 (礤 怦蝠鬻帼扈 镳彐溴 磬 铋 蝈痧栩铕梃 觐疱眄钽 眍襦).

吾疣蜩怿桉 镱蜩 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃, 祛骓 蜞赕 铞屙栩 漯囔囹梓羼觇 镱蝈痂 铗 戾骛囫钼铋 桁扈沭圉梃. 犷朦 镱矬鲨 镱蝈 10 螓. 铖钺彘 钿眍泐 眍襦 ( 镳桁屦, 疱珞朦蜞蝈 镳桊钿眍 赅蜞耱痤酐 桦 忸轫) 祛驽 觐祜屙耔痤忄螯 蝈麇龛 钿眍泐 镱觐脲龛. 疱珞朦蜞蝈 麒耠屙眍耱 镱矬鲨 忸琊囫蜞弪 漕 蝾, 觐蝾疣 钺羼镥麒忄弪 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃 耱疣睇. 篷腓 驽 铗 祛戾眚 戾耱 恹猁怿桴 玎龛爨 桁扈沭囗螓, 蝾 沐礤蜩麇耜 镱蝈 觐祜屙耔痼弪 玎忤耔祛耱 铗 耱屣屙 痤漶蜮 桁扈沭囗蝾 觐疱眄钽 磬皴脲龛. 橡 玎戾龛 溧蝼囗 囗汶梓囗囔 蜞赅 镱蝈 镳嚓蜩麇耜 镱腠铖螯 龛忮腓痼弪, 栳 眍覃 犭桤觐痤漶蜮屙睇. 橡 玎戾龛 囗汶梓囗 镳邃耱噔栩咫扈 徉眚 ( 磬钺铕铗) 镱蝈 10 螓. 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 钿眍泐 眍襦 妁 犷脲 篑筱筢弪 (玎 聍弪 狍潴 篁疣), 蜞 赅  眍覃 磬躅蝰 铗痂鲟蝈朦眍 (爨蝈爨蜩麇耜) 痤漶蜮 镱 铗眍龛 漯筱 漯筱.

琼圜屙桢 蜞觐 镱蝈痂 龛耜铍 礤 箪屙噱蝰 玎 聍弪 囫稃脲龛 桁扈沭囗蝾 镱 怦彘 蝈痧栩铕梃 觐疱眄钽 眍襦. 碾 噌铕桡屙眍泐 眍襦 蝈痧栩铕   蜞觐 驽 耦忪羼蝽 桉镱朦珞屐 疱耋瘃, 赅 钺耱忮眄 犭嚆 蝾忄瘥. 项蝈 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 桁邋 铗眍龛 膻犷祗 耠篦嚅眍 恹狃囗眍祗 镳邃耱噔栩咫 噌铕桡屙眍泐 眍襦, 礤玎忤耔祛 铗 蝾泐, 沅 邈 镳邃耱噔栩咫 礤镱耩邃耱忮眄 镳铈桠噱. 镱蝈疱 溴蝈 赅 蜞觐恹 疱鼽, 觐礤黜, 礤 桎弪. 橡邃镱豚汔弪, 黩 钺耱忮 狍溴 蝾 驽 耋祆囵眍 觐腓麇耱忸 溴蝈. 蒡 蜞赕 礤 桁邋 铗眍龛 赅觐-腓犷 耔焘铍梓羼觐 汨徨腓 膻溴.

褥扈沭囗螓 蝾驽 篦囫蜮簋 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 镱蝾祚蜮, 镳铞羼 龛麇耜钽 玎戾龛 耦溴轳蜮箦 筲咫梓屙棹 桴 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱. 项蝈痂 镳 铎 礤皴 蝾朦觐 觐疱眄铋 眍, 磬 蝈痧栩铕棹 觐蝾痤泐 怦咫桦囫 桧铨蝽梓磬 沭箫镟. 橡梓屐 镱蝈痂 铟屙 镥瘃铐嚯桤桊钼囗. 碾 驽睐桧 觐疱眄钽 眍襦 沐礤蜩麇耜 镱蝈 忤忄脲眚磬 镱蝈疱 邋 溴蝈 忭箨钼. 碾 祗骥桧 觐疱眄钽 眍襦  蜞赕 忤忄脲眚眍 镱蝈疱 邈 溴蝈 忭箨钼, 蝾朦觐 妁 犷朦, 耩噔礤龛 驽睐桧铋, 耱屣屙. 锑聒蜞犴铖螯 镱漕犴 桤戾礤龛 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 眍襦 镱玮铍弪 聍栩囹, 黩 铞屙赅 镥瘃铐嚯桤桊钼囗睇 镱蝈瘘 (玎戾龛 沐眍 耦狁蜮屙眍泐 镱蝾祚蜮 沐磬扈 龛麇耜 黧驿 桧滂忤漕) 腓 礤珥圜栩咫 桤戾龛 钺 赅痱桧.

如 桴 疣耨箧溴龛 耱囗钼栩 耥, 黩 龛麇耜桢 沐礤蜩麇耜桢 桧蝈疱覃, 赅 镳噔桦, 铟屙 忮腓觇 耩噔礤龛 沐礤蜩麇耜桁 桧蝈疱襦扈 铗溴朦眍 皴禳 (觐蝾瘥扈 祛骓 镳屙遽疱鼽). 锑蝈爨蜩麇耜栝 疣聍弪 桴 铞屙铌 镱赅琨忄弪, 黩 桧 赅痱桧 礤忸珈铈磬. 项蝈痂 铗 戾骛囫钼铋 桁扈沭圉梃 狍潴 忮腓觇, 溧驽 羼腓 忭篁痂龛麇耜铄 痤漶蜮 狍溴 耦耱噔螯 钿眢 耦蝮 铗 镳桠邃屙睇 恹 珥圜屙栝. 项沭屮眍耱 桉镱朦珞屐 囗嚯桤 镳邃镱腩驽龛 蜞赕 礤 祛泱 耜铍-龛狍潼 珥圜栩咫 镱怆螯 磬 疱珞朦蜞. 镳桁屦, 沐礤蜩麇耜桢 镱蝈痂 疋玷 戾骛囫钼铋 桁扈沭圉桢 祛泱 箪屙囹 疱珞朦蜞蝈 蝾泐, 黩 怦咫屙桢 桁扈沭囗蝾 狍溴 镳桠钿栩 筲咫梓屙棹 漕脬钼疱戾眄铋 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃 耱疣睇. 镳邃镱腩骅 疋铊 疣聍弪圊 眢脲忸 铐铎梓羼觇 翦牝 ( 眢脲恹 玎蝠囹), 眍 镱蝈痂 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 镱-镳彐礤祗 狍潴 忮腓觇, 溧驽 羼腓 铐 磬 50 桦 磬 90% 觐祜屙耔痼 犭嚆钿囵 皴泐漤桁 铐铎梓羼觇 恹泐溧, 镳桧铖桁 桁扈沭囗蜞扈. 蒡铗 疱珞朦蜞 铖蜞弪 耧疣忮潆桠 忸 怦艴 耠篦, 玎 桉觌屙桢 疣滂赅朦睇 铒痤忮疰屙栝 耵铕祗腓痤忄眄 恹 镳邃镱覃腩 铗眍龛 玎戾龛 觐疱眄 眍耦 桁扈沭囗蜞扈. 奏耱梓眍 玎戾龛 疣忭铋 戾疱 镳桠钿栩 珥圜栩咫铎 耥桄屙棹 觐翳鲨屙蜞 痤漶蜮 眍皴.

蒡眍覃 磬 襦祛 溴脲 镳邃耱噔 耦犷 耋镥瘃屐, 赅  箧 猁腩 恹耜噻囗 疣礤 铃疸铎. 湾耢铗 磬 蝾, 黩 镱 耩噔礤龛 皴禳彘 眍覃 铌噻帼蝰 犷脲 噻禧螓扈 躔囗桦棂囔 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦, 铐 犷脲 珥圜桁, 蜞 赅 桉麒耠 扈腚桀磬扈 桧滂忤漕. 篷腓 桁扈沭囗螓 玎戾 麇蜮屦螯 囗汶栝耜铋 磬鲨, 麒耠屙眍耱 觐蝾痤 镳桁屦眍 疣忭 50 麇., 蝾 铖蜞怿彘 鬣耱 狍潴 磬犭囹 铟屙 珥圜桁 镱蝈痂 龛麇耜钽 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦, 溧驽 羼腓  玎戾龛 礤 觐耥弪 礤镱耩邃耱忮眄 痤漶蜮屙龛觐. 篷腓 12,5 溧蝼囗 桦 犭桤觐泐 龛 眍襦 镥疱戾耱蝰 理汶棹, 镱蝈 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 潆 铖蜞怿桴 囗汶梓囗 狍溴 忤忄脲眚磬 209 螓. 溴蝈. 理嚯钽梓磬 镱蝈 铗 镥疱皴脲龛 理汶棹 蜞觐泐 驽 觐腓麇耱忄 桁扈沭囗蝾 桤 软滂 耦耱噔栩 箧 2,6 铗屦眄 溴蝈-囗汶梓囗, 耠篦噱 羼腓  狍潴 桁扈沭囗螓-徉眚  犷脲 13 溴蝈. 磬钺铕铗, 蝾黜 蜞觇扈 驽 猁腓 猁 镱蝈痂 彦忮痦铋 赔痤镥, 软滂 桦 磬 蝈痧栩铕梃, 磬皴屐铋 磬痤溧扈 徉眚, 羼腓 猁 蜞 镳铊珙 爨耨钼 玎戾 扈沭圉 囗汶梓囗.

琼圜桁铖螯 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 犷朦 眍耦 溴豚弪 耦鲨嚯簋 犭嚆铗忸痂蝈朦眍耱 沐痤桤 襦祛镱驽痱忸忄龛, 磬镳噔脲眄 磬 耦躔囗屙桢 疋铄 龛麇耜铋 沭箫稃, 镱蝈眦栲朦眍 噤囡蜩忭. 枢 忤漤 桤 镳桠邃屙睇 恹 铞屙铌, 龛麇耜栝 嚯痼桤 磬栳铍邋 噤囡蜩忮, 觐沅 铐 磬镳噔脲 磬 镱滗屦骊 麟屙钼 疋铄 龛麇耜铋 沭箫稃 篑腩忤 耦镥痦梓羼蜮 沐礤蜩麇耜 箐嚯屙睇扈 眍襦扈 (镳桧噤脲驵扈 疣珉梓睇 沐钽疣翳麇耜 溧脲觇 疣襦). 袜 痂耋黻 镱赅玎眍 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 沐礤蜩麇耜铄 疣耨蝾龛 戾驿 铖眍忭 疣襦扈 耋狃囫钼 沭箫镟扈, 篑蜞眍怆屙眍 磬 铖眍忮 汶钺嚯钽 钺珙疣 镱 88 沐磬 (镱 溧眄 枢忄腚-阳铕鳆 耦噔蝾痤 [28]). 琼圜屙 FST 戾驿 皴禳 疣襦扈 ( 耋狃囫囔) 镳桠邃屙 蜞犭. 2. 吾牝囔 桉耠邃钼囗 猁腓 桧滂忤潲, 觐蝾瘥 祛汶 镳铖脲滂螯 疋铄 痤漶蜮 漕 觐疱眄 噌铕桡屙睇 镱矬鲨, 蜞赕 噔蝾躜铐睇 磬痤漕, 磬皴怿桴 疱汨铐 漕 磬鬣豚 爨耨钼 扈沭圉栝 耦怵屐屙眍 , 觐蝾瘥 镳桠咫 耢屮屙棹 沐钽疣翳麇耜 箐嚯屙睇 疣 (磬麒磬 镳桁屦眍 XVI .).

缅礤蜩麇耜铄 疣耨蝾龛 戾驿 囗汶梓囗囔 徉眚 磬耱铍 忮腓觐, 黩 镳 耦镥痦梓羼蜮 戾驿 桁 眍襦扈 忭篁痂沭箫镱忸 嚯痼桤 囗汶梓囗 桦 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 忭篁痂沭箫镱忸 嚯痼桤 徉眚 狍溴 耱铍 驽 噤囡蜩忮, 赅 忡噼祉 嚯痼桤 痤滂蝈脲 溴蝈, 镳 篑腩忤 黩 铗 嚯痼桤 狁塍骅忄弪 耋耱怏邋 耦镥痦梓羼蜮 眍耦. 软 耠钼囔, 潆 铗溴朦眍泐 囗汶梓囗桧 狍溴 犷脲 噤囡蜩忭 痂耜钼囹 疋铄 骅珥 耦狁蜮屙眍耱, 潆 蝾泐 黩钺 忸耧疱蝰蜮钼囹 桁扈沭圉梃 理汶棹 溻篚 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 徉眚, 礤驽腓 桉稃蜞螯 蜞觐 驽 痂耜, 蝈 黩钺 耧囫蜩 桤 忸潲 钿眍泐 疋铄泐 疱徨黻. 蒡 耧疣忮潆桠, 羼腓 蝾朦觐 桁扈沭囗螓 礤 镳桠眍 蜞觇 铐铎梓羼觇 疱珏疴, 觐蝾瘥 镱玮铍 珥圜栩咫 镱耱眄 筲咫梓桠囹 钺 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃 洛腓觐狃栩囗梃. 翌 驽 襦祛 耧疣忮潆桠 潆 钺疣蝽铋 耔蝮圉梃: 溻 囗汶梓囗桧, 扈沭桊簋 磬 蝈痧栩铕棹 圄痂赅眈觐泐 磬痤溧 徉眚, 镳邃耱噔 耦犷 犷脲 珥圜桁簋 筱痤珞 漕脬钼疱戾眄 沐礤蜩麇耜桁 桧蝈疱襦 圄痂赅眈觐泐 眍襦, 礤驽腓 汨徨朦 钿眍泐 疱徨黻 徉眚. 蝾 驽 怵屐 沐礤蜩麇耜铄 疣耨蝾龛 戾驿 囗汶梓囗囔 溧蝼囗囔 磬耱铍 爨腩, 黩 囗嚯钽梓眍 耔蝮圉梃 噤囡蜩忭 铌噻噱蝰 腓 礤珥圜栩咫 箴钼屙 嚯痼桤爨 潆 镳铗桠钿彘耱忤 玎戾彘 桁扈沭圉梃. 湾耢铗 磬 镱蝈眦栲朦眍 犷朦 觐祜屙襦鲨, 忭篁痂龛麇耜栝 嚯痼桤 祛驽 猁螯 礤噤囡蜩忭, 羼腓 铐 耧铖钺耱怏弪 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 疋钺钿眍 镥疱戾桴 麟屙钼 眍襦. 蒡 镳钺脲爨, 蜞赕 铕汔龛玎鲨铐睇 (桧耱栩篥桀磬朦睇) 觐眚瘃蝠囹邈梃 钺耋驿帼蝰 祛眍沭圄梃 揜isky Transactions: trust, Kinship, and Ethnicity [29].

翌 羿牝, 黩 戾骛囫钼 桁扈沭圉 礤皴 皴徨 磬栳铍簋 筱痤珞 沐礤蜩麇耜桁 桧蝈疱襦 眍襦, 耱囗钼栩 铟邂桎睇 镳 疣耨祛蝠屙梃 觐腓麇耱忄 桁扈沭囗蝾, 礤钺躅滂禧 潆 箪屙屙 龛麇耜钽 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 耠篦嚅眍 恹狃囗眍 磬鲨 镥疱聍弪 磬 钿眍泐 疱徨黻. 亦 驽 赅 恹, 镳邃镱豚汔弪, 黩 桁扈沭囗螓 疣忭 觐疱眄铎 眍耋 铐铎梓羼觇 黩 赅驿 耱疣磬 桁邋 礤牦 觐礤黜簋 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃. 蜞犭. 3 镳桠钿蝰 镱赅玎蝈腓 潆 镳铞羼耦 戾骛囫钼铋 桁扈沭圉梃, 蜞犭. 4 蝈 驽 镱赅玎蝈腓 镳桠邃屙 潆 桁扈沭圉梃 镳邃咫圊 赔痤稃  鲥腩 泐祛沐眄钽 疣耦忸 铗眍龛 疱汨铐. 镱耠邃礤 蜞犭桷 镱赅玎蝈腓 犷脲 珥圜桁, 黩 镱潋忮疰溧弪 蝈玷 戾睃 怵邃 沐礤蜩麇耜桁 桧蝈疱襦 眍襦 铗 桁扈沭圉梃 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 犭桤觇 眍耦, 礤驽腓 铗 桁扈沭圉梃 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 箐嚯屙睇 疣. 洋耱怏 桉觌屙. 耦铗忮蝰蜮梃 桁 溧眄 桁扈沭圉 赔痤矬 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 礤邂痤镥轳觇 邂痤镥铊漤 眍耦 ( 磬钺铕铗  耢. 蜞犭. 3) 镳桠钿栩 戾睃 镱蝈 觐翳鲨屙蜞 痤漶蜮, 礤驽腓 桁扈沭圉, 磬镳桁屦, 襦囔钼 桦 骅蝈脲 燕痄桧梃 理汶棹. 悟戾蜩, 镳噔溧, 黩  桉觌屙桢 耧疣忮潆桠 铗眍龛 疱汨铐嚯 眍耦 痤觐 疣耧痤耱疣礤眄铋 邂痤镥铊漤铋 疣覃. 武磬觐 钺 磬镳噔脲眄铖螯 镳铞羼襦 耥. 褥扈沭圉 戾驿 眍襦扈 钿眍 蝾 驽 疣覃 镱-镳彐礤祗 祛驽 猁螯 礤噤囡蜩忭铋 潆 镱矬鲨-疱鲨镨屙蜞, 钿磬觐 镱痤泐恹 珥圜屙 桴 耠篦 10100 疣 戾睃 蜞觐恹 镳 戾骛囫钼铋 桁扈沭圉梃.

 

缅礤蜩麇耜 觌囫蝈痂玎鲨 皴扈 沐钽疣翳麇耜桴 疣 麇腩忮赅. 吏痂赅眈赅 疣襦 磬栳铍邋 箐嚯屙 铗 怦艴 铖蜞朦睇, 觐蝾瘥 铌噻帼蝰 忡噼祉 泐疣玟 犷脲 犭桤觇扈 漯筱 漯筱, 麇 圄痂赅眦囔 (耢.: Cavalli-Sforza L. L., Menozzi P., Piazza A. The history and geography of human genes.  . 79.

 

亦犭桷 2

 

体骛囫钼 觐翳鲨屙螓 滂耱囗鲨 戾驿 溴螯 沐钽疣翳麇耜桁 疣襦扈 麇腩忮赅*

 

 

A

赔-礤

E

填磴

填磴

漓屦

填磴

务蝠

棱耱

0.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

赔-礤

1340

0.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E

1656

155

0.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

填磴

1979

640

938

0.0

 

 

 

 

 

填磴

2009

708

747

460

0.0

 

 

 

 

漓屦

2261

956

1038

747

577

0.0

 

 

 

填磴

2206

940

1240

631

1039

1342

0.0

 

 

务蝠

2505

954

1345

724

1181

1741

437

0.0

 

棱耱

2472

1179

1346

734

1013

1458

1238

809

0,0

 

* 卿羼 镳邃耱噔脲睇 觐翳鲨屙螓 痤漶蜮 戾驿 耠篦嚅睇扈 桧滂忤溧扈 - 镳邃耱噔栩咫扈 疣珥 疣 耩噔龛蝈朦眍 漯筱桁 疣襦扈.

络噼祉 觐翳鲨屙螓 痤漶蜮 (戾驿 桧滂忤溧扈 钿眍 龛麇耜铋 沭箫稃, 羼腓 猁 铐 猁豚 桤铍桊钼囗眍) 疣忭 眢膻. 泥眄 铌痼汶屙, 耱囗溧痱磬 铠栳赅 桉觌屙. 洛腓麒睇 箪眍驽睇 磬 10000 潆 箐钺耱忄 黩屙.

袜玮囗 疣 溧睇 耦牮帙屙眍:   圄痂赅眦; 赔-礤  邂痤镥铊潲  礤 骅蝈腓 赔痤稃; 赔餎  邂痤镥铊潲  骅蝈腓 赔痤稃; 填磴 崖  祛磴铍铊潲  骅蝈腓 彦忮痤-骂耱铟眍 犁梃; 填磴 窒  祛磴铍铊潲  骅蝈腓 骤痍箪镱痦钽 疱汨铐; 漓屦  皴忮痤囔屦桕囗耜桢 桧溴轹 (囔屦桧潲); 填磴 蘼  祛磴铍铊潲  骅蝈腓 捭-骂耱铟眍 犁梃; 务蝠  骅蝈腓 铖蝠钼钼 诣躅泐 嚓遴磬; 棱耱  眍忸汊桧彘鳆 噔耱疣腓轳觇 噌铕桡屙.

: Cavalli-Sforza L. L., Menozzi P., Piazza A. The history and geography of human genes.  . 75.

 

 

亦犭桷 3

 

佯噔礤龛 溴蜩 沐钽疣翳麇耜桴 疣 麇腩忮赅 镱 麒耠 桁扈沭囗蝾, 礤钺躅滂祛祗 潆 蝾泐, 黩钺 桁桧桊钼囹 龛麇耜栝 沐礤蜩麇耜栝 桧蝈疱 膻犷泐 耠篦嚅眍泐 镳邃耱噔栩咫 镱矬鲨, 忤忄脲眚睇 痤驿屙棹 礤泐 钿眍泐 疱徨黻*

 

 

A

赔-礤

E

填磴

填磴

漓屦

填磴

务蝠

棱耱

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

赔-礤

1,3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E

1,1

8,5

 

 

 

 

 

 

填磴

1,0

2,3

1,7

 

 

 

 

 

填磴

1,0

2,1

2,0

3,1

 

 

 

 

漓屦

0,9

1,7

1,6

2,0

2,5

 

 

 

填磴

0,9

1,7

1,4

2,4

1,6

1,3

 

 

务蝠

0,9

1,7

1,3

2,1

1,4

1,1

3,2

 

棱耱

0,9

1,4

1,3

2,1

1,6

1,2

1,4

1,9

 

* 袜玮囗 疣 溧睇 耦牮帙屙眍. 鸯. 镳桁. 蜞犭. 2.

 

 

亦犭桷 4

 

阻耠 桁扈沭囗蝾, 礤钺躅滂祛 潆 疱潴鲨痤忄龛 龛麇耜钽 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦,
忤忄脲眚眍 痤驿屙棹 钿眍泐 疱徨黻 磬蜩忭铋 镱矬鲨*

 

 

 

燕囔

棱耱

理汶

剽赇

项痱

洛磴

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

燕囔

2,4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,2

2,2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

棱耱

6,8

4,4

4,6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8,2

3,0

4,2

35,1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13,8

3,9

4,8

33,3

17,7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7,8

4,4

4,2

66,2

24,4

46,7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8,9

3,5

4,8

17,7

19,9

19,3

27,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9,3

4,2

5,1

19,9

17,0

21,6

21,2

42,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8,0

3,7

3,9

104

40,7

54,7

125

21,2

16,4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12,1

4,1

5,3

78,5

29,4

39,4

83,7

31,6

24,9

89,7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7,2

4,1

4,0

46,7

23,5

29,4

78,5

18,5

16,0

66,2

59,9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11,0

4,0

4,4

33,3

19,3

39,4

78,5

23,5

22,3

78,5

104

139

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

理汶

10,9

3,5

4,1

23,1

21,2

52,5

57,2

18,2

16,2

45,0

83,7

59,9

73,9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6,0

2,9

3,5

8,5

7,6

8,9

12,2

9,1

7,8

11,2

16,4

14,6

12,8

16,8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9,0

2,6

3,6

11,2

11,1

13,8

15,3

8,7

8,2

14,9

17,0

18,8

16,8

42,0

13,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6,8

4,3

3,3

20,9

16,8

22,7

59,9

21,9

14,3

38,3

52,5

66,2

59,9

50,4

17,3

16,2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8,9

3,2

3,9

17,3

12,4

20,5

24,0

10,7

10,1

21,6

21,6

31,6

26,4

46,7

11,6

43,5

21,9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

剽邃

7,8

4,1

3,7

16,0

14,3

16,4

32,4

15,6

11,7

23,1

37,1

35,1

30,9

34,2

12,2

13,7

69,8

17,3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,8

4,4

7,0

14,9

10,3

9,9

9,1

7,4

8,1

8,8

12,5

6,9

6,7

6,5

4,7

4,7

5,7

5,3

5,8

 

 

 

 

 

 

9,2

4,1

6,0

29,4

16,6

37,1

33,3

19,9

17,0

28,8

42,0

17,7

19,9

24,9

9,1

9,8

14,6

11,5

13,5

16,6

 

 

 

 

 

项痱

9,0

4,2

4,1

26,4

27,5

26,4

24,9

19,6

13,1

24,0

40,7

16,6

21,2

8,9

8,8

11,2

17,5

13,3

16,4

12,5

28,8

 

 

 

 

12,4

3,1

4,6

18,5

19,6

32,4

18,5

11,1

10,6

29,4

30,1

16,0

16,8

27,0

8,0

11,4

13,3

12,9

13,0

8,1

20,9

26,4

 

 

 

7,5

2,6

4,6

11,7

12,8

10,5

11,0

9,5

7,7

10,8

25,4

8,3

9,6

8,2

4,3

5,0

7,6

5,4

6,2

6,2

10,9

9,4

7,6

 

 

5,7

6,3

4,1

16,6

7,5

12,1

16,6

9,4

8,5

11,5

20,2

13,4

10,5

11,2

8,3

6,0

13,7

7,9

15,6

8,7

13,7

10,9

8,2

5,4

 

洛磴

8,5

4,1

4,9

31,6

18,5

18,2

27,5

50,4

42,0

22,3

24,4

16,4

18,0

18,2

7,6

8,6

16,6

10,5

13,0

14,6

20,9

20,2

11,0

9,6

11,2

___________________

* 佯噔礤龛 戾驿 26 邂痤镥轳觇扈 眍襦扈 (镱 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 滂耱囗鲨 Fst.

袜玮囗 眍耦 溧睇 耦牮帙屙眍: 拎  徉耜; 燕囔  襦囔; 燕  襦痄桧鳆; 棱耱  噔耱痂轹; 族  麇蹊;   麴囗鲶琨; 湾  礤祧; 项  镱觇; 畜  痼耨觇;   彘鲟瘀; 铃  徨朦汨轹; 泥  溧蝼囗;   龛溴痣囗漩; 理汶  囗汶梓囗;   桉豚礓鳆;   桊豚礓鳆; 皖  眍疴彐鳆;   螂囗漩; 剽邃  邃; 灭  沭尻;   栩嚯眦; 项痱  镱痱筱嚯;   桉镟眦; 捭  铖豚恹;   翳眄; 洛磴  忮磴瘥.

 

: Cavalli-Sforza L. L., Menozzi P., Piazza A. The history and geography of human genes.  . 270.

 

 

义铕 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 绵扈朦蝾磬 镱玮铍弪 疣耨麒蜞螯 麒耠 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 钿眍泐 蝾泐 驽 眍襦, 觐蝾瘥 漕腈睇 镱塍麒螯 恹泐潴, 羼腓 镳邃镱豚汔弪 噤囡蜩忭铖螯 礤觐邈 嚯痼桉蜩麇耜钽 溴轳蜮. 绵扈朦蝾 耵铕祗腓痤忄 镳噔桦 疣聍弪 噤囡蜩忭铖蜩 铗溴朦眍泐 嚓蜞 嚯痼桤爨, 桦 邈 铍桀眄铋 耱噌桦铖蜩, 镳 觐蝾痤 鬣耱铗 嚯痼桉蜩麇耜桴 沐眍 镱矬鲨 礤 耦牮帙噱蝰. 蒡 镳噔桦 铐 耵铕祗腓痤忄 铗眍龛 镱赅玎蝈 痤漶蜮 (relatedness) r, 觐蝾瘥 溧眄铎 耠篦噱 祛驽 猁螯 玎戾礤 磬 觐翳鲨屙 2f, 潆 蝾泐 黩钺 钺羼镥麒螯 耦镱耱噔桁铖螯 溧眄 溧眄 镱矬鲨铐眍 沐礤蜩觇. 橡噔桦 绵扈朦蝾磬 汶囫栩, 黩 嚯痼桤 铍桀眄 耱噌桦屙, 觐沅

b/ > 1/2f,

耩邃龛 觐翳鲨屙 痤漶蜮 戾驿 嚯痼桉蝾 疱鲨镨屙蝾 嚯痼桉蜩麇耜钽 溴轳蜮; b  耋祆 恹泐 铗 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 潆 怦艴 铖钺彘, 忸怆鬻屙睇 嚯痼桉蜩麇耜铄 镱忮溴龛; 玎蝠囹 磬 镱恹龛 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 襦祛泐 嚯痼桉蜞. 绵扈朦蝾 铛囵嚓蝈痂珙忄  镳噔桦 耠邃簋 钺疣珙:  蝾泐 黩钺 铞屙栩  镳噔桦, 镳桠邃屐 镳桁屦: 驽痱忮眄铄 溴轳蜮桢 礤觐邈 骅忸蝽钽 狍溴 噤囡蜩忭, 羼腓 镱玮铍栩 耧囫蜩 礤 戾礤 溻篚 邈 耔狁钼 [30].

橡噔桦 绵扈朦蝾磬 箫痤弪 篑腩忤 噤囡蜩忭铖蜩 龛麇耜钽 嚯痼桤爨 潆 耠篦噱, 觐沅 鲥磬 镱怛铕睇 嚓蝾 嚯痼桤爨 潆 襦祛泐 嚯痼桉蜞-溧痂蝈 礤忮腓赅, 恹泐潲 镱塍鬣蝈 耋耱忮眄 犷脲 珥圜桁. 袜镳桁屦, 戾腩鼽, 觐蝾痼 镱溧 箅梓睇 镱镳铠嚅赅, 耋耱忮眄 犷脲 珥圜桁 潆 镱塍鬣蝈, 礤驽腓 溧邈. 翌黜 蜞 驽 礤牝, 觐眚痤腓痼栝 磬屐 耦蝠箐龛觐 桦 疣耧疱溴脲龛 觐眚疣牝钼, 祛驽 猁螯 桉蝾黜桕铎 珥圜栩咫 恹泐 镳 扈龛爨朦睇 腓黜 玎蝠囹圊 桦 镱腠铎 铗耋蝰蜮梃 蜞觐恹. 离痼桤 祛驽 猁螯 恹耦觐噤囡蜩忭, 觐沅 铐 镳桧铖栩 犭嚆 钿眍怵屐屙眍 犷朦祗 麒耠 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 溧眄钽 眍襦. 狸 犭嚆铗忸痂蝈朦眍耱 桦 沐痤桤爨, 镳邃铗怵囹桠 桁扈沭圉棹, 玎戾簋 10 螓 囗汶梓囗 10 螓鬣扈 溧蝼囗, 狍溴 噤囡蜩忭, 溧驽 羼腓 铐 狍溴 耱铊螯 嚯痼桉蝮 邈 骅珥 怦艴 礤疱嚯桤钼囗睇 忸珈铈眍耱彘 耦玟囗 耦狁蜮屙眍 皴禳 (镱 牮嚅礤 戾疱, 皴禳 疣珈屦铎 戾礤 167 麇腩忮). 褥屙眍 铗 嚓 耦躔囗栩 潆 眍襦 沐礤蜩麇耜栝 忤忄脲眚 167 溴蝈. 橡邃铗怵帙屙桢 玎戾彘 桁扈沭圉梃 10 螓. 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 徉眚 狍溴 妁 犷脲 珥圜桁 嚓蝾 嚯痼桤爨, 镱耜铍 沐礤蜩麇耜桢 恹泐潲 铗 钽 溴轳蜮 狍潴 65 疣 犷朦. 湾耢铗 磬 珥圜栩咫 镳彖祗耱忄 恹泐潲, 龛麇耜栝 嚯痼桤, 觐蝾瘥 礤 磬镳噔脲 磬 钺羼镥麇龛 徨珙镟耥铖蜩 铗 玎戾彘 桁扈沭圉梃, 礤噤囡蜩忮. 橡 珥圜栩咫铋 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 桤戾眵桠铖蜩 怦艴 镱矬鲨 铖蜞弪 犷朦 镳铖蝠囗耱忸 潆 桧滂忤潴嚯钽 耦镥痦梓羼蜮. 离痼桤 噤囡蜩忮 腓 蝾沅, 觐沅 铐 忮溴 玎蝈 钺 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 眍襦.

 

蒡龛麇耜桢 沐礤蜩麇耜桢 桧蝈疱覃: 耠篦嚅 沿

蒡龛麇耜 觐黻箴屙蝽铄 镱忮溴龛 蜞赕 镱澉桧弪 镳噔桦 绵扈朦蝾磬 耠篦, 觐沅 鲥磬 耦镥痦梓羼蜮 戾驿 眍襦扈 龛珀, 磬镳桁屦 觐沅  耦镥痦梓羼蜮 镳桧桁噱 镱腓蜩麇耜桢 纛痨, 礤 纛痨 襦祛镱驽痱忸忄龛 玎蝮 沭囗桷. 疹痤 镳桁屦铎 玟羼 耠箧囹 杨邃桧屙睇 仳囹  牮箫礤轼栝 扈疱 疱鲨镨屙 桁扈沭囗蝾. 祛戾眚 桁扈沭圉桀眄 疱纛痨 1965 . 铗眍耔蝈朦磬 麒耠屙眍耱 囔屦桕囗鲥 邂痤镥轳觐泐 镳铊聃铈溴龛 (咫) 珥圜栩咫 箪屙桦囫. 1960 . 徨腩 磬皴脲龛 耦耱噔腩 88,6% (桉镟眦邂 蝾 怵屐 礤 恹溴腓) [31]. 2000 . 漕 礤桉镟眈觐泐 徨腩泐 磬皴脲龛 耦牮囹桦囫 漕 69,6% [32]. 蝾 怵屐 赅 噌耦膻蝽 麒耠屙眍耱 徨腩泐 磬皴脲龛 镳钿铍驵豚 疣耱, 犷脲 恹耦觇 镱赅玎蝈腓 痤驿噱祛耱 桁扈沭圉梃 (1 脲汔朦睇 桁扈沭囗蝾 泐 徨 篦弪 犷朦泐 麒耠 礤脲汔腩) 耱嚯 镳梓桧铋 蝾泐, 黩 漕 徨腩泐 磬皴脲龛 耦牮囹桦囫 磬 21% 磬 镳铗驽龛 骅珥 溻篚 镱觐脲龛 囔屦桕囗鲥. 项 镳钽眍珞 羊囹桉蜩麇耜钽 狺痤 沿, 2050 . 漕 礤桉镟眈觐泐 徨腩泐 磬皴脲龛 忸 怦屐 磬皴脲龛 沿 耦耱噔栩 52,8%. 2060 . 徨腩 磬皴脲龛 沿, 礤觐沅 铖眍忄怿邋 镱矬鲨, 铌噫弪 箧 戾睃眈蜮.

悟戾蜩, 黩 镳桠邃屙睇 耱囹桉蜩麇耜桢 溧眄 镳栳腓玷蝈朦睇. 阻耠屙眍耱 徨腩泐 磬皴脲龛 溴轳蜮栩咫铖蜩 礤耜铍 犷朦 箨噻囗眍, 镱耜铍 礤觐蝾痤 麒耠 桉镟眍-囔屦桕囗鲥 镳铊聃钿 桤 赔痤稃. 翌黜簋 踵疣牝屦桉蜩牦 疣耦忸泐 怅豚溧 桉镟眍-囔屦桕囗鲥 溧螯 礤忸珈铈眍, 蜞 赅 礤钺躅滂禧 耱囹桉蜩麇耜桢 溧眄 羊囹桉蜩麇耜桁 狺痤 沿 礤 耦徼疣.

疱珞朦蜞蝈 桁扈沭圉梃 狍溴 磬犭囹 翦牝桠眍 玎戾龛 犷朦泐 麒耠 觐疱眄 囔屦桕囗耜桴 眍耦, 镳梓屐 礤 蝾朦觐 徨腩泐 磬皴脲龛, 眍 怦艴 漯筱桴 桉觐眄 眍耦, 铗腓黜 铗 眍耦-桁扈沭囗蝾. 蒡 铗眍耔蝰 圄痤囔屦桕囗鲟. 噌耦膻蝽 鲨麴圊 桴 麒耠屙眍耱 忸琊囫蝈, 钿磬觐 漕脬钼疱戾眄铋 镥瘃镥牝桠, 觐沅 狍溴 漕耱桡眢蜞 镳邃咫 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃 漓屦桕, 铐 狍潴 耦耱噔螯 珥圜栩咫 戾睃 漕膻 磬皴脲龛 耱疣睇, 礤驽腓 1965 . 鸯屮屙桢 疣 礤 桤戾龛 耔蝮圉棹, 镱耜铍 溧眄铎 耠篦噱 桁邋 珥圜屙桢 耦铗眍龛 滂耱桧牝睇 沐眍 眍耦 磬 铒疱溴脲眄铋 蝈痧栩铕梃, 礤玎忤耔祛 铗 蝾泐, 赅 赅觇 耦铗眍龛 耢屮囗  沐睇. 亦觇 驽 钺疣珙 桁扈沭囗螓, 觐蝾瘥 磬耱 祛戾眚 疣耱忸 沐礤蜩麇耜铎 镱脲 桉觐眄钽 磬皴脲龛, 溴轳蜮簋 忸 犭嚆 疋铊 耦狁蜮屙睇 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦. 桴 耦狁蜮屙睇 耱疣磬 桁扈沭囗螓, 赅 镳噔桦, 礤 镳桧桁帼蝰, 箴钼龛 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 磬皴脲龛 珥圜栩咫 镳邂帼 蜞觐恹 耦钺耱忄 青镟溧. 央邃钼囹咫, 镳铞羼 铌噻噱蝰 牮嚅礤 犭嚆铒痂蝽 潆 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 眍耦-桁扈沭囗蝾.

橡 镱耱痤屙梃 龛麇耜 钽疣龛麇眄铋 桁扈沭圉桀眄铋 镱腓蜩觇 囔屦桕囗耜铄 龛麇耜铄 犷朦眈蜮 镱塍麒腩 猁 珥圜栩咫 镳彖祗耱忄 铗眍龛 镳钿铍骅蝈朦眍 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 耱噌桦铖蜩 镱漕犴 蝾祗, 赅  镳铊聃钿桦 镳 疱嚯桤圉梃 1924 . 耔耱屐 赈铗. 泥眄 耔耱屐 猁豚 磬鲥脲磬 磬 镱滗屦驵龛 耦铗眍龛 眍耦, 耠铈桠泐 耱疣礤 磬 觐礤 1800- 泐漕. 镳铗桠铒铍铈眍耱 铎, 篑桦 戾睃眈蜮 (腩後桊钼囗桢 桴 桧蝈疱耦 忭篁痂 耱疣睇, 礤脲汔朦磬 桁扈沭圉, 镱塍麇龛 疣犷螓 疣琊屮屙栝 磬 骅蝈朦耱忸) 耠铎嚯 耔耱屐 赈铗 耧铖钺耱忸忄腓 纛痨桊钼囗棹 镱腓蜩觇 蜿瘥螓 溻屦彘, 觐蝾疣 磬鬣豚 铖簌羼蜮螯 1965 . 蒡 耱嚯 疋铄泐 痤溧 嚓蝾 耦镥痦梓羼蜮 龛麇耜桁 犷朦眈蜮铎. 项漕犴 篑桦 戾睃眈蜮 磬 纛礤 耱疱祀屙 桧 沭箫 箐钼脲蜮铕螯 疋铊 桧蝈疱覃 (磬镳桁屦, 镱桉 礤觐蝾瘥扈 疣犷蝾溧蝈扈 溴忸 疣犷麇 耔臌) 镳桠咫 箪屙屙棹 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 徨腩泐 磬皴脲龛 耱铍 珥圜栩咫 爨聒蜞徉, 黩  镳邂桦 镱蝈痂 铗 怦艴 镳铊聃钿桠 漓屦桕 忸轫.

篷腓 沐礤蜩麇耜桢 桧蝈疱覃 磬耱铍 珥圜桁 鲥眄, 蝾 镱麇祗 蜞觇 耱疣睇 赅 杨邃桧屙睇 仳囹, 怦 驽 桎篁 磬 耱铍 爨聒蜞犴 镱蝈痂? 署囹觇 铗忮 祛 猁 猁螯 蜞觇: 赅 镳噔桦,  镱蝈痂 礤 镳桧桁帼蝰 疣聍弪. 杨邃桧屙睇 仳囹 磬耱 祛戾眚 镳邃耱噔 耦犷 耢屮屙桢 疣珥 耦钺耱, 镳彖祗耱忮眄 玎镟漤 囗汶钽钼铕. 橡 铎 镳铊聃钿栩 玎戾龛 珥圜栩咫铋 漕腓 桉觐眄钽 磬皴脲龛 镳 痤耱 钺 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃. 褥扈沭圉桀眄 镱腓蜩赅 镱溧怆邈 犷朦眈蜮 漯筱桴 钺耱, 磬镳铗桠, 蝾 桦 桧铋 纛痨, 镳邃耱噔弪 耦犷 镱腓蜩牦 钽疣龛麇龛. 塔猁 钺耥屙 镳桢祀屐铖蜩 玎戾龛 眍耦, 蜞觇 钺疣珙, 铗眍蝰 鬣耱眍耱. 族 驽 耱铍 铗腓鬣弪 漓屦桕?

武眍 忸珈铈眍 钺耥屙桢 祛驽 猁螯 耩噻 驽 铗忮疸眢蝾. 雾 玎觌噱蝰 漕矬龛, 黩 囔屦桕囗耜铄 龛麇耜铄 犷朦眈蜮 礤 玎弪 疋铊 沐礤蜩麇耜桢 桧蝈疱覃 疱珞朦蜞蝈 耦珥囹咫钽 恹犷疣 耱疣蝈汨 疣珈囗 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 桦 礤镳桧蜩 珥圜桁铖蜩 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 鲥腩. 蒡 牮嚅礤 爨腩忮痤蝽铄 镳邃镱腩驽龛, 镱耜铍 蝾沅 耠邃箦 聍栩囹, 黩 镳桠邃屙睇 溧眄铋 耱囹 囗嚯桤 痤觐 桤忮耱屙. 蒡 蜞赕 镱漯噻箪邂噱, 黩 钺耱忸 徼铍钽梓羼觇 沭囔铗眍 黩 铐 镱塍鬣弪 桧纛痨圉棹 溴轳蜮 耦猁蜩, 怆桴 磬 沐礤蜩麇耜栝 桧蝈疱. 蔓 箧 铗戾鬣, 黩 羊囹桉蜩麇耜铄 狺痤 沿 礤 铗耠彐桠噱 溧眄钺 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 眍耦 镳邃咫圊 耱疣睇. 蒡 忮顸爨 耱疣眄 蝾麝 琊屙 溧疴桧桉蝰觐泐 镱漉钿. 埋屐 镱蝽, 觐沅 溴祛牮囹梓羼觐 钺耱忮 忮溴蝰 蝾黜 耱囹桉蜩麇耜栝 篦弪 筢栝耱 耠篦嚅睇 耢屦蝈, 觐蝾瘥 桉麒耠 螓鬣扈, 镱耜铍 铐 礤 蝾朦觐 怆 磬 桧滂忤潴嚯簋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱, 眍 蜞赕 怆 镱赅玎蝈扈 钺耱忮眄铋 徨珙镟耥铖蜩. 武磬觐 彐邈钿眍 玎戾龛 耦蝈 螓 桉觐眄 囔屦桕囗鲥 镱黩 龛沅 龛赍 礤 篦栩噱蝰. 念溧疴桧耜铄 耦耱龛 睇礤彘 玎镟漤铋 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 牦朦蝮瘥, 礤耦祉屙眍, 珥圜栩咫铋 戾疱 耧铖钺耱怏弪 镱蝈疱 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 龛麇耜铋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱.

 

亦犭桷 5

橡铞屙 痤漶蜮 镱 腓龛 痤滂蝈脲, 镱塍鬣屐 镳 恹犷疱 狃圜眍泐 镟痱礤疣 桤 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 耦狁蜮屙眍 镱矬鲨 镱 耩噔礤龛 恹犷痤 桤 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 漯筱铋 镱矬鲨*

 

 

A

赔-礤

E

填磴

填磴

漓屦

填磴

务蝠

棱耱

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

赔-礤

54

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E

66

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

填磴

79

26

38

 

 

 

 

 

 

填磴

80

28

30

18

 

 

 

 

 

漓屦

90

38

42

30

23

 

 

 

 

填磴

88

38

50

25

42

54

 

 

 

务蝠

100

38

54

29

47

70

17

 

 

棱耱

99

47

54

29

41

58

50

32

 

______________

* 袜玮囗 镱矬鲨 溧睇 耦牮帙屙眍. 鸯. 镳桁. 蜞犭. 2.

 

令脲 忮痦铄 钺耥屙桢 耦耱铊 蝾, 黩, 礤耢铗 磬 铗耋蝰蜮桢 磬皴脲龛 珥囗栝 徼铍钽梓羼觇 玎觐磬, 杨邃桧屙睇 仳囹圊 桁扈沭圉 礤觇 钺疣珙 疱泱腓痼弪 蜞, 黩 铐 礤 耱囗钼栩 礤噤囡蜩忭铋, 躅 镳铊聃钿栩 铖眍忭铎 玎 聍弪 磬皴脲龛, 沐礤蜩麇耜 箐嚯屙眍泐 铗 邂痤镥轳觐泐 矬豚 沐眍. 枢 铗戾鬣腩顸 恹, 铐铎梓羼觇 翦牝 铗 桁扈沭圉梃 祛泱 猁螯 犭嚆铒痂蝽 潆 觐疱眄钽 磬皴脲龛, 蜞 赅 忮潴 筲咫梓屙棹 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃. 蒡 钺羼镥麒忄弪 痤耱 噌耦膻蝽铋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 怦艴 沭箫 疱玷溴眚钼. 填驽 腓 铌噻囹, 黩 镱耠 1965 . 桁扈沭圉 沿 耧铖钺耱忸忄豚 痤耱 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桧蝈疱襦 觐疱眄 磬痤漕? 蒡铗 忸镳铖 溴蜞朦眍 礤 疣耨爨蝠桠噱蝰 铐铎梓羼觐 耦鲨铍钽梓羼觐 腓蝈疣蝮疱 镱 桁扈沭圉梃. 武磬觐 镳邃耱噔弪 忮痤蝽, 黩 礤觐蝾瘥 桁扈沭囗螓 祛汶 钺羼镥麒螯 痤耱 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 龛麇耜钽 犷朦眈蜮 玎 聍弪 筲咫梓屙 钺祛 龛珀桴 镱 耱铊祛耱 篑塍. 酿筱桢 桁扈沭囗螓 耧铖钺耱忸忄腓 耥桄屙棹 耱铊祛耱 玎蝠囹 磬 镳铊玮钿耱忸 玎 聍弪 镳栩铌 溴忸 疣犷麇 耔臌,   祛汶 耱桁箅桊钼囹 疣玮栩桢 铗疣耠彘 铐铎桕, 疋玎眄 钺疣珙忄龛屐, 耦 耱痤栩咫蜮铎 漕祛 桧铋 桧麴囫蝠箨蝮瘥.

皖  恹泐潲 耦镱耱噔桁 玎蝠囹囔, 蜞 赅 祉钽桢 桁扈沭囗螓, 钿眍 耱铕铐, 耱嚯 眍恹 狃屐屙屐 潆 钺耱忮眄 耠箧, 漯筱铋  玎腓 疣犷麒 戾耱, 觐蝾瘥 祛汶 猁 猁螯 镳邃铖蜞怆屙 觐疱眄铎 磬皴脲龛 [34]. 武桧 桤 镱玷蜩忭 囫镥牝钼 桁扈沭圉梃 耦耱铊 蝾, 黩 桁扈沭囗螓 镳桠眍 牦朦蝮痦铄 疣珥铑狃噻桢, 钿磬觐  桁邋 蜞赕 礤汔蜩忭 镱耠邃耱忤, 镱耜铍 礤耧腓鲨痤忄眄 疋玷 钺耱忮 钺铕圜桠帼蝰 忭篁疱眄桁 觐眙腓牝囔. 杨邃桧屙睇 仳囹 镥疱耱帼 猁螯 龛麇耜铋 磬鲨彘, 耱囗钼蝰 (桦 箧 耱嚯) 祗朦蜩牦朦蝮痦 泐耋溧瘃蜮铎. 疱珞朦蜞蝈 怦邈 钽 疣玮栩桢 钺耱忮眄钽 嚯痼桤爨 纛痨圊 沭噫溧眈觐泐 嚯痼桤爨 镟蝠桀蜩麇耜钽 襦祛镱驽痱忸忄龛 箧 玎蝠箐礤眍 [35].

泥驽 羼腓 怦咫屙桢 桁扈沭囗蝾 耧铖钺耱怏弪 痤耱 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦, 铗 囵泱戾眚 祛骓 漕忮耱 漕 牮嚅眍耱. 镳桁屦, 羼腓 龛麇耜 沭箫镟 桁扈沭囗蝾 铌噻噱蝰 鲥腩 犷脲 镳钿箨蜩忭铋 耩噔礤龛 觐疱眄 磬皴脲龛屐, 蝾 镱腠铄 玎戾龛 觐疱眄钽 眍襦 桁扈沭囗蜞扈 祛驽 镳桠羼蜩 礤钽疣龛麇眄铎 痤耱 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃. 皖 镱耠邃礤 怵 腓 铌噫弪 犭嚆铒痂蝽 潆 觐疱眄钽 眍襦. 填骓 腓 聍栩囹, 黩 铐铎桕 漕腈磬 钺羼镥麒忄螯 膻溴 潆 蝾泐, 黩钺 铐 镳 铎 襦祛恹痤驿嚯桉? 西邂桎眍, 黩 箴钼屙 桁扈沭圉梃 漕腈屙 猁螯 耜铕邋 铒蜩爨朦睇, 礤驽腓 爨犟桁嚯. 亦赕 铟邂桎眍, 黩 爨犟桁嚯 漕矬耱桁 桁扈沭圉 狍溴 戾睃, 礤驽腓  疣耨麒螓忄弪 蝾朦觐 蝾麝 琊屙 铐铎桕,  羼腓 觐疱眄铄 磬皴脲龛 镱-镳彐礤祗 驽豚弪 觐眚痤腓痤忄螯 耦耱龛 溴 耱疣礤. 妙耋溧瘃蜮  祛泱耱忮眄 桧耱痼戾眚 镱滗屦驵龛 邃桧耱忄 沭箫稃, 邋 祛徼腓玎鲨 觐铕滂磬鲨. 橡 溴祛牮囹梃 钺耱忮眄 觐眚痤朦 磬 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 囡镟疣蝾 蝠遽箦 耦躔囗屙 溴祛沭圄梓羼觐泐 漕扈龛痤忄龛 觐眚痤 铐铎桕, 溧驽 羼腓 镳 铎 镳铊聃钿栩 耥桄屙桢 镱赅玎蝈脲 痤耱.

埋 囵泱戾眚, 铖眍忄眄 磬 镱蜩 铐铎梓羼觐 屐觐耱 蝈痧栩铕梃, 漕腈睇 镳桧桁囹 铖蝾痤骓铖螯, 赅 疣蜿铖痤黜, 镱耜铍 镱耠邃耱忤 蜞觇 铐铎梓羼觇 疱龛 祛泱 镳怆螯 麇疱 祉钽桢 镱觐脲龛. 蓍犭-蓍徨耵咫 [36] 篁忮疰溧, 黩 麇腩忮麇耱忸 磬 镳铗驽龛 怦彘 疋铄 桉蝾痂 钺疱麇眍 铗溧忄螯 镳邃镱黩屙桢 牮囹觐耩铟睇 恹泐溧 铌痼驵屐 桴 扈疱. 橡邃耱噔桁 皴徨, 黩 1600 ., 漕 镳钿噫 锑眭蝈磬, 囔屦桕囗耜桁 桧溴轹囔, 耥噌滂 桴 礤钺躅滂祛 桧纛痨圉桢, 镳邃腩骅腓 猁 恹犷 戾驿 溻箪 赅痱桧囔 狍潴泐, 铗眍泐 2000 . 武磬 桤 桴 赅痱桧  耦怵屐屙睇 杨邃桧屙睇 仳囹 箴钼礤 铐铎梓羼觐泐 疣玮栩, 觐蝾瘥 猁 猁 礤漕耱桄桁 徨 漕镱腠栩咫 篑桦栝 扈腚桀眍 镥疱皴脲眦邂 桁扈沭囗蝾 桤 赔痤稃. 酿筱铋 忄痂囗 狍潴泐  觐沅 钿磬 桦 礤耜铍 桧溴轳觇 磬鲨 怆噤妣 怦彘 耦怵屐屙眍 蝈痧栩铕桢 沿 镳 珥圜栩咫 戾睃 疣玮栩梃 铐铎桕. 枢觐 桤 忄痂囗蝾 狍潴泐 铐 猁 恹狃嚯, 羼腓 猁 鲥龛腓 龛麇耜桢 沐礤蜩麇耜桢 桧蝈疱覃? 青溴疰觇 镳桀狃弪屙梃 赅觇-蝾 磬恹觐 桦 桧耱栩篁钼 (溧驽 羼腓  玎溴疰觇 磬 溴蜩脲蜩 忮赅) 镱赅玎腓顸 猁 铟屙 耜痤祉铋 觐祜屙襦鲨彘 篁疣螓 狍潴泐 怦屐 镱耠邃簋扈 镱觐脲龛扈 眍襦. 耦怵屐屙眢  噔蝾爨蜩玎鲨 耱疱祀屙桢 桁镱痱 痼黜钽 蝠箐 镳邃耱噔弪 铖钺屙眍 礤溧朦眍忤漤. 泥驽 羼腓 铐铎桕, 忪羼蝈 礤 磬皴脲龛 狍潴 铗耱噔囹 疋铄 疣玮栩梃,  怦 驽 狍溴 铟屙 礤犷朦 镫囹铋 玎 耦躔囗屙桢 觐眚桧屙蜞 潆 疋铊 镱蝾礻钼.

 

湾噤囡蜩忭铖螯 箜栩囵睇 祗朦蜩龛黜 钺耱 镳邃腩驽龛 镱朦珞 箜桠屦襦朦眍泐 磬鲨铐嚯桤爨

泥眄 镱矬鲨铐眍 沐礤蜩觇 疋桎弪咫蜮簋 蝾, 黩 沭箫稃 眍耦 镱-镳彐礤祗 沐礤蜩麇耜 珥圜栩咫 箐嚯屙 漯筱 铗 漯筱. 杨怵屐屙睇 眍覃 戾礤 泐祛沐眄, 礤驽腓 镳邃耱忸忄怿桢 桁 镫屐屙, 黩 疋玎眍 疣玮栩桢 蝠囗耧铕蝽 觐祆箜桕圉栝 筲咫梓屙桢 疣珈屦钼 噤扈龛耱疣蜩忭 铐铎梓羼觇 邃桧桷. 武眍怵屐屙眍 蜞觐 疣玮栩桢 镳桠咫 蝾祗, 黩 爨聒蜞 觐黻箴屙鲨 眍耦 疣聒桊桦: 羼腓 镳彐溴 铐 觐黻箴桊钼嚯 耦皴漤桁 镫屐屙囔, 蝾 蝈镥瘘  觐黻箴屙鲨 铛忄螓忄弪 怦 镫囗弪. 项矬鲨, 觐蝾瘥 溴蜿 螓 脲 猁腓 桤铍桊钼囗, 皴轺囫 镱塍麒腓 忸珈铈眍耱 爨耨钼 镥疱戾龛 磬 痤觇 镳铖蝠囗耱忄 珏祉钽 疣. 鼠朦蝮痦 桧蝈沭圉 桁扈沭囗蝾 礤 篑蝠囗弪 龛麇耜铋 觐黻箴屙鲨. 缅礤蜩麇耜桢 滂耱囗鲨 戾驿 耦怵屐屙睇扈 眍襦扈 鬣耱 磬耱铍 忮腓觇, 黩  脲汴 忤溴螯 镱 疣耦恹 疣珉梓 鲡弪 觐骅, 麇痱圊 腓鲟 镳铒铕鲨 蝈豚. 蒡 疣珉梓  漕耱钼屦睇 爨痍屦 珥圜栩咫铋 龛麇耜铋 箐嚯屙眍耱. 枢 镳邃耜噻嚯铖 疣礤 绵扈朦蝾眍, 撯 赅觐-蝾 祛戾眚, 觐沅 麟屙 觐腩龛 铌噻帼蝰 疋玎眄 漯筱 漯筱铎 耱铍 驽 蝈耥, 赅 囿蜥疱漤 耔犭桧汨, 潆 赅驿钽 麟屙 觐腩龛 耱囗钼栩 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 脲汴 铗戾鬣螯 疣珉梓 镳 耩噔礤龛 疋铊 耦镫屐屙龛觐 麟屙囔 漯筱钽 耦钺耱忄. 疱珞朦蜞蝈 镱怆弪 忸珈铈眍耱 漕耱囹铟眍 麇蜿 铗溴螯 囫 铗 桴粎 [37]. 蒡 礤 赅觐-蝾 翦牝 桧彘 犷痤潲 (green beard effect), 镳 觐蝾痤 钿桧 沐 铒疱溴弪 嚯痼桤, 疣玮栩桢 忤滂禧 麇痱 眍襦, 镱耜铍 绵扈朦蝾 耨噱蝰 磬 羼觐朦觐 礤玎忤耔祛 磬耠邃箦禧 镳桤磬觐饣. 亦觇 钺疣珙, 铐 泐忸痂 痤觐 沐礤蜩麇耜铎 聃钿耱忮, 踵疣牝屦桤簋 箴钼屙 沐礤嚯钽梓羼觐泐 痤漶蜮.

麟屙钼 祗朦蜩龛黜钽 ( 铖钺屙眍 祗朦蜩疣耦忸泐) 钺耱忄 桁邋蝰 礤觇 桧滂忤潴嚯 恹犷. 雾 祛泱 忮耱 皴 羼蝈耱忮眄 钺疣珙, 溴祛眈蝠桊 龛麇耜栝 礤镱蜩珈,  镱耠邃龛 噤囡蜩忮, 蜞 赅 耧铖钺耱怏弪 耦躔囗屙棹 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 痤漶蜮屙眍 沭箫稃. 武磬觐 蜞觐 镱忮溴龛, 铖钺屙眍 羼腓 铐 镳怆弪 犷朦眈蜮铎 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘 眍襦, 忮溴 耦鲨嚯 觐眙腓牝囔 祛驽 镱怆鬻 玎 耦犷 耥桄屙桢 镳钿箨蜩忭铖蜩 磬鲨铐嚯铋 铐铎桕. 袜镳铗桠, 镱忮溴龛 沭噫溧 祛驽 猁螯 礤滂耜痂扈龛痼桁. 铎 耠篦噱, 羼腓 铐 镳怆弪 犷朦眈蜮铎 麟屙钼 钺耱忄, 钺 屐觐耱 磬鲨铐嚯铋 蝈痧栩铕梃 祛驽 筲咫梓栩, 眍 镳铊聃钿栩 耥桄屙桢 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 痤滂麇. 悟赅 镳孱犭噤帼泐 眍襦 铗 滂耜痂扈龛痼邈 镱忮溴龛 (镱 铗眍龛 桧铨蝽梓睇 沭箫镟) 蝾朦觐 篚箐弪 耔蝮圉棹, 羼腓 戾睃眈蜮 钿眍怵屐屙眍 蜞赕 礤 铗赅琨忄 铗 滂耜痂扈磬鲨 镱 铗眍龛 犷朦眈蜮. 镳铗桠眍 耠篦噱 囫桁戾蝠梓磬 祛徼腓玎鲨 祛驽 钺羼镥麒忄螯 戾睃眈蜮囔 礤镳铒铕鲨铐嚯铄 怆龛, 镳桠钿, 蜞觇 钺疣珙, 耥桄屙棹 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 龛麇耜钽 犷朦眈蜮. 项 潴 桉蝾痂麇耜桴 镳梓桧 镱漕犴 囫桁戾蝠 聍栩噱蝰 疣犷蜞桁 祗朦蜩牦朦蝮疣腓珈铎.

橡栳腓玷蝈朦眍 漕 1965 . 玎镟漤 祗朦蜩龛黜 钺耱忄 耋耱忸忄腓 镳桠桦邈梃 潆 龛麇耜钽 犷朦眈蜮 簌屦 戾睃眈蜮囔. 吾睇 猁腩 桉镱朦珙忄龛 犷朦眈蜮铎 蝠箐 戾睃眈蜮. 橡桁屦铎 钽 祛泱 猁螯 桧耱栩篁 疣狁蜮 桁镱痱 溴忸 疣犷麇 耔臌. 武磬觐 1960‑ 泐漕, 镱耠 镳桧蜩 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛 痤觐泐 桧耱栩篁 沭噫溧眈觇 镳噔, 钺耱忮 耵铕扈痤忄腭 眍恹 钺疣 溴轳蜮栝 (modus operandi). 锑骖痂蜞痦 眍覃 钽疣龛麒腓 疋铪 滂耜痂扈磬鲨 镱 铗眍龛 戾睃眈蜮囔; 镳铞羼 溧驽 镱忮痦箅 怦螯, 疱珞朦蜞蝈 麇泐 耵铕扈痤忄腩顸 镱蜩 祗朦蜩牦朦蝮疣腓珈. 亦觐 钿眍耱铕铐龛 篚钿 铗 龛麇耜钽 耦镥痦梓羼蜮 耧铖钺耱忸忄 疣玮栩棹 铐铎桕 鲥腩 , 礤耦祉屙眍, 犭嚆铒痂蝰蜮钼嚯 镱腩驽龛 戾睃眈蜮. 武磬觐 镱漕犴 纛痨箅 祗朦蜩牦朦蝮疣腓珈 猁豚 痂耜钼囗眍 潆 龛麇耜钽 犷朦眈蜮, 铖钺屙眍 镳 磬腓麒 沐礤蜩麇耜 箐嚯屙睇 戾睃眈蜮, 镱耜铍 戾睃眈蜮 铌噻嚯桉 镱蝈眦栲朦睇扈 磬蹼遽龛赅扈, 镟疣玷蜩痼桁 磬 嚯痼桤戾 犷朦眈蜮. 溴 玎镟漤 钺耱, 怅膻鬣 杨邃桧屙睇 仳囹, 枢磬潴 棱耱疣腓, 铗 眍恹 镱漉钿 铌噻嚯 耦镳驽 铖豚犭屙桢 觐眚痤 玎 桁扈沭圉桢 礤邂痤镥轹邂, 黩 镳桠咫 桴 耱疣磬 猁耱瘥 桤戾礤龛 赅痱桧 龛麇耜铋 耱痼牝箴 钺耱忄. 蝾麝 琊屙 犷朦眈蜮 祛驽 铌噻囹, 黩 犷脲 礤噤囡蜩忭 祗朦蜩牦朦蝮疣腓珈铎 耩噔礤龛 屦噌铗帼旎 怆弪 蝾朦觐 祗朦蜩牦朦蝮疣腓珈, 觐蝾瘥 溴轳蜮栩咫 噌铗噱蚧.

项漕犴铄 圊脲犴梓羼蜮罨 戾睃眈蜮 磬犭噱蝰 疣珉梓睇 纛痨圊. 橡 磬腓麒 龛麇耜铋 耱疣蜩翳赅鲨, 黩 踵疣牝屦眍 潆 怦艴 祗朦蜩牦朦蝮痦 钺耱, 圊脲犴梓羼蜮罨 戾睃眈蜮 祛驽 镳怆螯 磬 龛瑛桴 耱箫屙 觌囫耦忸 桢疣瘐梃 纛痨 犷脲 疋钺钿眍泐 漕耱箫 耦鲨嚯 犭嚆囔 桧 恹泐溧 铗 疣耧疱溴脲龛 钺耱忮 蝾忄痤 篑塍. 铎 耠篦噱 龛麇耜铄 犷朦眈蜮  铖眍忭 磬腩泐镫囹咫桕 襦扈 镫囹 玎 篁疣蝮 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱, 翳磬眈桊 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 皴禳, 镳桧噤脲驵 漯筱桁 眍襦. 填驽 蜞赕 铌噻囹, 黩 觐黻箴屙蝾耧铖钺睇 戾睃眈蜮 狍潴 铐铎梓羼觇 桦 牦朦蝮痦 漕扈龛痤忄螯 磬 龛麇耜桁 犷朦眈蜮铎,  羼腓 疋钺钿磬 溴蝈朦眍耱 戾睃眈蜮 狍溴 镳怆螯 蜞觇 纛痨圊, 赅 怆龛 磬 耱疣蝈汨 牦朦蝮痦钽 疣玮栩, 桁扈沭圉梃, 玎痼徨骓铋 镱腓蜩觇, 蜞 黩 玎溧麒 戾睃眈蜮 疱 簌屦 桧蝈疱襦 犷朦眈蜮.

亦觇 钺疣珙, 祗朦蜩龛黜铄 钺耱忸 礤噤囡蜩忭 潆 龛麇耜钽 犷朦眈蜮 镳 祗朦蜩牦朦蝮疣腓耱耜桴 镱漉钿圊 礤噤囡蜩忭 潆 戾睃眈蜮 镳 蝠噤桷桀磬腓耱耜桴 镱漉钿圊. 橡桧蜩 镱腩驽龛 痤觐爨聒蜞犴铎 龛麇耜铎 沐礤蜩麇耜铎 桧蝈疱皴 镱玮铍栩 镥疱耢铗疱螯 羼蝈耱忮眄簋 镳桊钿 磬鲨铐嚯 桧蝈疱耦, 蜞赕 桤戾龛 钺 镳邃耱噔脲龛 耧疣忮潆桠铎 扈痤篑蝠铋耱忮. 袜耱 囗嚯桤 镱潋忮疰溧弪 珥圜桁铖螯 磬鲨铐嚯钽 耋忮疱龛蝈蜞. 蝾麝 琊屙 (-)溧疴桧桤爨 耋忮疱眄 镱腓蜩赅   蜞赅 镱腓蜩赅, 疱珞朦蜞蝈 觐蝾痤 (扈痦 矬蝈 桦 纛痨 忸屙桤桊钼囗睇 觐眙腓牝钼) 铖簌羼蜮弪 觐眚痤朦 玎 桁扈沭圉桢 磬 疋铪 蝈痧栩铕棹. 蝾麝 琊屙 徼铍钽梃 耧疣忮潆桠铄 扈痤篑蝠铋耱忸 祛驽 猁螯 麇-蝾 镱躅骅 磬 箜桠屦襦朦睇 磬鲨铐嚯桤, 镳铒嚆囗滂痤忄怿栝 XIX . 悟蝾 纛 凌耢囵觐 磬鬣脲 XX . 麦漯 妈朦耦眍. 篑腩忤 疣耱簌彘 忸 怦屐 扈疱 桧蝈沭圉梃 礤漕忸朦耱忸 钿眍泐 磬痤溧 祛驽 镳桠钿栩 礤汔蜩忭 镱耠邃耱忤 潆 桧蝈疱耦 怦艴 赅驿钽. 疱珞朦蜞蝈 怦屐 祛驽 铌噻囹 恹泐漤铋 纛痨箅, 镳桤磬 赅 礤钺躅滂祛耱 噔蝾眍扈, 蜞 疱嚯铖螯 忡噼祛玎忤耔祛耱 眍耦  玎 聍弪 镳桤磬龛 珥圜桁铖蜩 徉珙恹 桧蝈疱耦, 桁屙眍, 桧蝈疱耦 耱噌桦铖蜩 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 耱痼牝箴 眍襦. 蒡 驽 纛痨箅 镱玮铍栩 漕耱梓 篑蝾轺桠铋 耱噌桦桤圉梃 磬皴脲龛 清祀 玎 聍弪 铛疣睇 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 磬栳铍邋 筱礤蝈眄 沭箫 磬皴脲龛.

禹桠屦襦朦睇 磬鲨铐嚯桤 镳邃豚汔弪 蜞觐 镳邃耱噔脲龛 钺 龛麇耜铎 泐耋溧瘃蜮, 觐蝾痤 镱漯噻箪邂噱, 黩 泐耋溧瘃蜮 鲥脲磬镳噔脲眄 钺耠箧桠噱 桧蝈疱覃 龛麇耜钽 犷朦眈蜮. 项 龛麇耜桁 泐耋溧瘃蜮铎 镱龛爨 礤黩 犭桤觐 耜铕邋 礤 麴囗鲶珩觐, 蝠噤桷桀眄铋 礤戾鲫铋 祛溴腓 磬鲨. 礤戾鲫铋 祛溴腓 牮栩屦桢 沭噫溧眈蜮 怆弪 龛黜铖螯 镱 牮钼. 亦觇 钺疣珙 耱噔栩 觐眈蜩蝮鲨铐嚯 徉瘘屦 玎戾彘 桁扈沭圉梃. 骂 怛铕铋 镱腩忤礤 XX . 铗 徉瘘屦 猁 疣琊篪屙 蝈 犭嚆铒铍篦睇 耱疣磬, 觐蝾瘥 镳桧腓 麴囗鲶珩牦 祛溴朦 磬鲨. 务眍忭铋 痂耜, 疋玎眄 疱嚯桤圉桢 铋 祛溴腓, 玎觌噱蝰 镱潇屙 镱蜩 龛黜铖蜩 礤觇 磬犷痤 噌耱疣牝睇 镳邃耱噔脲龛, 铒疱溴桴 耔焘铍桕 磬鲨. 暑眈蜩蝮鲨铐嚯 镟蝠桀蜩珈, 镳铒嚆囗滂痼屐 囗蜩磬鲨铐嚯桉蜞扈 [38],  簌屐脲龛 桧蝈疱耦 龛麇耜钽 犷朦眈蜮 疣滂 钺耠箧桠囗 鬣耱睇 桧蝈疱耦 戾睃眈蜮 铗溴朦睇 龛麇耜桴 栩. 赅驿铎 泐耋溧瘃蜮, 沅 磬耱 祛戾眚 镳铊聃钿栩 桁扈沭圉, 玎戾 桉觐眄 龛麇耜桢 沭箫稃 (磬镳桁屦, 棱耱疣腓, 洛腓觐狃栩囗梃, 枢磬溴, 责囗鲨, 沿), 蝾 桦 桧铋 纛痨 镳桧 觐眈蜩蝮鲨铐嚯 镟蝠桀蜩珈. 枢 镳噔桦,  疋玎眍 蜞赕 镳桧蜩屐 漕牝痂睇 祗朦蜩牦朦蝮疣腓珈, 觐蝾疣 耧铖钺耱怏弪 疣玮栩棹 眍鲥眚痂珈 戾睃耱 镳 钿眍怵屐屙眍 镥疱磬镳噔脲龛 镟蝠桀蜩麇耜桴 黧怦蜮 犷朦眈蜮 磬 礤觇 箜桠屦襦朦睇 桎彖. 耦铗忮蝰蜮梃 铋 纛痨箅铋 泐耋溧瘃蜮 龛麇泐 礤 镱蝈弪, 羼腓 桉躅漤 龛麇耜 沭箫镟 狍溴 扈痦 钺疣珙 玎戾螯, 漕 蝈 镱赅 耦躔囗弪 礤琨犭屐 礤觇 磬犷 徉珙恹 鲥眄铖蝈, 蜞觇 赅 溴祛牮囹, 疣忮眈蜮, 铗耋蝰蜮桢 滂耜痂扈磬鲨 筲噫屙桢 镳噔 戾睃眈蜮. 杨麇蜞龛 觐眈蜩蝮鲨铐嚯钽 镟蝠桀蜩珈 祗朦蜩牦朦蝮疣腓珈铎 铌噻噱蝰, 赅 耠邃钼嚯 铈桎囹, 礤汔蜩忭 羿牝铕铎 铗眍龛 桧蝈疱耦 龛麇耜钽 犷朦眈蜮.

骂琊铈溴龛 龛麇耜钽 磬鲨铐嚯桤爨 镳铗桠铕鬻栩 耦怵屐屙睇 腓徨疣朦睇 溴祛牮囹梓羼觇 镱漉钿囔. 武磬觐 蝾麝 琊屙 觌囫耔麇耜钽 腓徨疣腓珈 蜞赅 耢屙 耱疣蝈汨 犭嚆铒痂蝽, 镱耜铍 镱玮铍弪 耦躔囗栩 桧蝈疱覃 犷朦眈蜮. 软蝈疱覃 戾睃眈蜮 祛泱 猁螯 鬣耱梓眍 钺羼镥麇睇 麇疱 铍桀眄 耱噌桦 纛痨 翦溴疣腓珈, 铍桀眄 礤耥 纛痨 囫耔扈鲨, 蜞赕 麇疱 纛痨 钽疣龛麇龛 桁扈沭圉梃 耦麇蜞龛 玎痼徨骓铋 镱腓蜩觐, 疱嚯桤簋 襻嚯囗耔痤忄眄 铖眍忄眄 磬 疱嚯铋 桧纛痨圉梃 纛痨 磬鲨铐嚯桉蝰觐 漕牝痂睇 XIX .

礤 潴爨, 黩 耋耱怏 赅觇-蝾 镳铖螓 钿桧嚓钼 恹泐漤 矬蜩 疱龛. 项耢铗痂, 镳桁屦, 赅觇 漕腈屙 猁螯 铒蜩爨朦睇 疣珈屦 磬鲨铐嚯钽 泐耋溧瘃蜮. 蝾麝 琊屙 耦躔囗屙 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 躅痤  爨脲睃觇旎, 镱耜铍 觐眦屙蝠圉 滂耱桧牝睇 沐眍 磬皴脲龛 蝈 犷朦, 麇 戾睃 襦爨 沭箫镟. 蝾麝 琊屙 铐铎梓羼觐 桦 忸屙眍 徨珙镟耥铖蜩, 磬镳铗桠, 麇 泐耋溧瘃蜮 犷朦  蝈 塍鼬. 茵噤桷桀眄 磬鲨铐嚯 泐耋溧瘃蜮, 觐蝾瘥 耵铕扈痤忄腓顸 觐眦 XIX ., 镳邃耱噔腓 耦犷, 镱 耋耱怏, 疣珥铕钿眢 耢羼 眍耦. 令朦 镱 镫铢噤 泐耋溧瘃蜮 礤 祛汶 镳邃耱噔螯 桉螓寤 龛麇耜桢 桧蝈疱覃, 钿磬觐 镳 囗囵蹊黜铋 耔耱屐 戾驿箜囵钿睇 铗眍龛 铐 漕腈睇 猁腓 猁螯 珥圜栩咫 犷朦, 潆 蝾泐 黩钺 猁螯 骅珥羼镱耦犴 铐铎梓羼觐 忸屙眍 铗眍龛. 朽耧疱溴脲龛 珙 疋钺钿眍 蝾疸钼腓 钺羼镥麒腩 疣聆忮 礤犷朦 泐耋溧瘃蜮. 武磬觐, 潆 蝾泐 黩钺 镳邃腩驽眄 祛溴朦 溴轳蜮钼嚯 镱怦屐羼蝽, 礤钺躅滂禧 礤觇 汶钺嚯 桧耱栩篁, 觐蝾瘥 祛汶 猁 钺羼镥麒忄螯 溴轳蜮桢 戾驿箜囵钿睇 玎觐眍 赅 嚯屦磬蜩怏 忸轫囔. 杨玟囗桢 戾驿箜囵钿睇 铕汔眍 箫疣怆屙 耦镳驽眍 耦狁蜮屙睇扈 痂耜囔, 怅膻鬣 痂耜 纛痨桊钼囗 汶钺嚯铋 耧塍囹桊簋 栩, 溴蝈朦眍耱 觐蝾痤 耱囗钼栩 礤疱泱腓痼屐铋 桤-玎 铗耋蝰蜮 嚯屦磬蜩忭 鲥眚痤 耔臌. 亦赕 镳桉篁耱怏弪 痂耜 镱溧怆屙 戾礤 镳钿箨蜩忭 铐铎桕 耦 耱铕铐 犷脲 镳钿箨蜩忭.

霹 钿桧 羿牝铕, 镱 铗眍龛 觐蝾痤祗 怵 腓 忸珈铈睇 镳铖螓 疱龛,   爨耨钼 桁扈沭圉 镳铠邃 溴蜩脲蜩, 镱怆尻 玎 耦犷 筲咫梓屙桢 爨聒蜞犷 觐眙腓牝钼 龛麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦. 皖 耦躔囗弪 磬溴驿 磬 礤牦 桤钺疱蜞蝈朦眍耱 麇腩忮麇耱忄. 袜镳桁屦, 蓍犭-蓍徨耵咫 钺耋驿嚯 龛麇耜栝 翦溴疣腓珈, 钽疣龛麇眄 疱镳钿箨蜩忭 桧蝈疱襦扈, 镳桤磬, 黩 怦孱狴桴 疱龛 礤 耋耱怏弪.

 

祗朦蜩龛黜 泐耋溧瘃蜮圊 耱痼牝箴 翦溴疣腓珈 镱玮铍弪 疣玮桠囹 襦祛箫疣怆屙桢 疣珉梓睇 龛麇耜桴 沭镲 镳邃咫圊 礤觐蝾瘥 沭囗桷. 亦赕 铐 镱玮铍弪 疣玮桠囹 耦蝠箐龛麇耱忸 漯筱桁 沭箫镟扈 磬 铖眍忮 礤觇 恹聒桴 忡噼祉 桧蝈疱耦. 蒡铗 戾踵龛珈 祛驽 疣犷蜞螯 漕 蝈 镱, 镱赅 耋耱怏弪 礤觐 耦鲨嚯铄 耦汶帏屙桢, 溧邋 忸珈铈眍耱 桤徨汔螯 疣珉梓栝 箴钼 忸耧痤桤忸漶蜮 钿眍泐 眍襦 玎 聍弪 漯筱钽罨 [39].

铖觐朦牦 泐耋溧瘃蜮 镳邃耱噔弪 耦犷 桉蝾痂麇耜 漕耱囹铟眍 眍忸 怆屙桢, 礤箐桠栩咫, 黩 麇腩忮麇耱忸 怦 妁 耧屦桁屙蜩痼弪 纛痨囔 箫疣怆屙. 妙蝾忸泐 疱鲥矧 桎遴朦眍泐 泐耋溧瘃蜮 礤, 钿磬觐 羼螯 皴痂 痼觐忸漶蜮 戾蝾滂麇耜桴 爨蝈痂嚯钼. 篷腓 禧 礤 狍溴 铗牮 潆 眍恹 桎彘 眍恹 纛痨 噤囡蜞鲨, 禧 耱铍觏屐 皴瘘彗睇扈 镳钺脲爨扈 [40].

 

磬鲨铐嚯 泐耋溧瘃蜮 桁邋蝰 镳彖祗耱忸, 疋玎眄铄 蝈, 黩 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 桧滂忤潴嚯桉蝰觐 镱忮溴龛 耱囗钼栩 噤囡蜩忭 疱珞朦蜞蝈 铗耋蝰蜮 龛麇耜桴 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 赅 羿牝铕 忭篁痂泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 镱腓蜩觇 铐铎桕. 洛痤蝽, 镱铎 桧潴耱痂嚯 疱忸膻鲨 邂痤镥轳觐 桉蝾痂 猁豚 忸珈铈磬 桁屙眍 磬鲨铐嚯 泐耋溧瘃蜮圊. 蒡龛麇耜铄 泐耋溧瘃蜮 镳桧鲨镥 铗牮 潆 腓徨疣腓珈 邈 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 铐铎梓羼觇 镳怆屙. 篷腓 耦镥痦梓羼蜮 桁邋 戾耱 蝾朦觐 戾驿 桧滂忤溧扈 戾驿 皴禳扈 礤 耦镥痦梓羼蜮 眍耦, 蝾 镱忮溴龛 桧滂忤漕 祛驽 耦铗忮蝰蜮钼囹 铐铎弪痂麇耜铋 祛溴腓 铒蜩爨朦眍 爨犟桁桤圉梃 桉镱朦珙忄龛 疱耋瘃钼. 镱腓龛黜 泐耋溧瘃蜮圊 桧滂忤潴嚯 铐铎梓羼赅 疣鲨铐嚯铖螯 礤噤囡蜩忭, 羼腓 铐 忮溴 镱蝈疱 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 龛麇耜铋 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 耱疣蜩翳赅鲨 眍耦 ( 桁屙眍  钺眍 镳铊聃钿栩 祗朦蜩牦朦蝮痦铎 钺耱忮).

囫镥牝 铍梃 铗眍龛 龛麇耜桴 泐耋溧瘃蜮 耦躔囗弪 礤赅 蝈铕弪梓羼赅 镳钺脲爨. 泐祛沐眄铎 磬鲨铐嚯铎 泐耋溧瘃蜮 礤 磬犭噱蝰 圊脲犴梓羼蜮嗷 爨臌 眍耦 玎 聍弪 镳彖祗耱 镱蝠遽脲龛 钺耱忮眄 犭嚆 篑塍, 钿磬觐 礤 汔疣眚栝 蝾泐, 黩 蜞觐 驽 圊脲犴梓羼蜮罨 礤 疣珙恻弪 忭篁痂 眍襦, 耩邃 耦镫屐屙龛觐. 镳邃咫圊 眍襦 镱漕犴铄 圊脲犴梓羼蜮罨 栩 漕腈眍 猁螯 戾礤 礤噤囡蜩忭, 礤驽腓 戾纨蝽梓羼觐 圊脲犴梓羼蜮罨. 桴 耠篦 疱鼽 桎弪 蝾朦觐 恹泐溧, 镱塍鬣屐 镳邃咫圊 钿眍泐 眍襦. 武磬觐 镱漕犴铄 镱忮溴龛 蜞赕 筱痤驵弪 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 犷朦 鬣耱 眍襦 溧驽 镳桉镱耦犭屙眍耱 痤漶蜮屙睇 栩 桧滂忤漕, 觐蝾瘥 磬蹼遽龛赅扈 礤 怆. 亦觇 钺疣珙, 嚯痼桤, 磬镳噔脲眄 磬 耦狁蜮屙睇 眍, 铍桀眄 礤耱噌桦屙 羼腓 礤 觐眚痤腓痼弪 镳铞羼 圊脲犴梓羼蜮嗷. 拟 铖眍忭 蜩镟 圊脲犴梓羼蜮嗷 镟疣腚咫 蝈, 觐蝾瘥 钺耋驿嚯桉 恹 镳桁屙栩咫 疣珥 眍襦,   纛痨桊钼囗桢 觌囫襦, 玎忤耔祛泐 铗 疣耧疱溴脲龛 耦鲨嚯 犭嚆, 觌囫襦 栩. 腻祛牮囹梓羼觐 泐耋溧瘃蜮 篁疣蜩 疋铪 脲汨蜩祉铖螯, 羼腓 礤 耢铈弪 钺羼镥麒螯 犭嚆铖铖蝾龛 钺耱忄 玎 聍弪 镥疱疣耧疱溴脲龛 疱耋瘃钼 铗 犷汔螓 徨漤. 皖 耦怵屐屙磬 铐铎桕 蜞赕 镱蝈弪 铗眍龛 觐黻箴屙蝾耧铖钺眍耱, 羼腓 珥圜栩咫 铐铎梓羼觇 怅豚 桧滂忤漕 沭箫 礤 狍溴 镱铢螯 镳彖祗耱忄扈 耦鲨嚯铎 耱囹篑 钺豚溧龛 疱耋瘃囔. 砚玎眄 桁 翦眍戾  觌囫 戾礤滏屦钼, 牮嚅礤 忄骓 潆 钺羼镥麇龛 溴蝈朦眍耱 泐耋溧瘃蜮 觐痫铕囹桠眍 狺痤牮囹梃. 蒡 沭箫镟 栩 桁邋 镳彖祗耱忮眄 漕耱箫 瘥鬣汔 牦朦蝮痦铋 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 怆囫蜩 耱疱扈蝰 纛痨桊钼囗棹 磬镳噔脲眄 磬 襦祛钺耠箧桠囗桢 桎孱腩汨 桧耱栩篁钼, 疱珞朦蜞蝈 麇泐 桧蝈疱覃 铋 沭箫稃 耱噔蝰 恹 磬鲨铐嚯 桧蝈疱耦 [41]. 孰囫耦恹 龛麇耜桢 桧蝈疱覃 磬躅蝰 镱蝈眦栲朦眍 觐眙腓牝, 镱耜铍 礤汔蜩忭 怆 赅 磬 镱徨滂蝈脲, 蜞 镱徨驿屙睇 耦镥痦梓羼蜮 玎 疱耋瘃.

杨镥痦梓羼蜮 觌囫耦 玎蝠箐礤眍 溴轳蜮桢 疱镳钿箨蜩忭 桧蝈疱耦 磬 箴钼礤 皴禳, 蝾沅 赅 耦镥痦梓羼蜮 眍耦 镳铊聃钿栩 磬 箴钼礤 沭箫镱恹 桧蝈疱耦. 疱珞朦蜞蝈 忸珥桕噱 礤觇 徼铖铞栲朦睇 觐眙腓牝  铗耋蝰蜮桢 觐祜痤扈耨 戾驿 忸珈铈眍耱扈 疱镳钿箨礓桠桎钼 礤钺躅滂祛耱 耦忪羼蝽 玎螯 龛麇耜铄 痤漶蜮. 篷腓 赅觐-蝾 疱龛 铋 镳钺脲禧 耋耱怏弪, 蝾 铐 漕腈眍 怅膻鬣螯 皴 疣耨祛蝠屙桢 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桧蝈疱耦 眍襦 赅 礤觐邈 觐腚尻蜩忭钽 犭嚆 [42],  蜞觐泐 犭嚆, 觐蝾痤 疱泱腓痼弪 泐耋溧瘃蜮铎 疣礻圊 耱疣蝈汨 铍梃 沭箫稃 [43]. 妙耋溧瘃蜮 箧 疱泱腓痼弪 疣耧疱溴脲龛 觐腚尻蜩忭 犭嚆, 磬镳桁屦 蜞觇, 赅 钺羼镥麇龛 徨珙镟耥铖蜩 沭箫稃, 钺疣珙忄龛, 觐祆箜桕圉梃. 杨怵屐屙睇 泐耋溧瘃蜮 铖簌羼蜮 蜞赕 铒疱溴脲眄 觐眚痤朦 玎 忸珈铈睇 圊脲犴梓羼蜮铎 麇疱 蜞觇 戾踵龛珈, 赅 疱泱腓痼屐 玎觐眍 耱疣蝈汨 钺耱忮眄钽 镱忮溴龛, 邃桧铄 磬腩泐钺腩驽龛 镳邃铖蜞怆屙桢 钺玎蝈朦眍泐 扈龛祗爨 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 篑塍. 橡 铎 钿磬 桤 玎溧 耦耱铊 耦躔囗屙梃 镳铉疣黜铖蜩 赅 襦祛 耱疣蝈汨, 蜞 戾踵龛珈 疱泱腓痤忄龛 泐耋溧瘃蜮铎 潆 玎螓 铗 赅觇-腓犷 纛痨 镳邂铖躅漶蜮 爨龛矬腓痤忄龛 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 怆囫螯. 羊铍 驽 忄骓 镳邃铗怵帙囹 龛麇耜栝 礤镱蜩珈 磬 怦艴 箴钼. 蒡 漕腈眍 镱漯噻箪邂囹 纛痨桊钼囗桢 蜞觇 镱漉钿钼, 赅 滂镫铎囹 徉豚眈 耔 箫疣怆屙桢 戾驿箜囵钿睇扈 桧耱栩篁囔 潆 镳屣蝰蜮 嚆疱耨桠眍祗 忸屙桤桊钼囗眍祗 磬鲨铐嚯桤祗 磬 戾驿箜囵钿眍 囵屙. 湾钺躅滂祛 疱螯  玎溧麒, 铖蜞怆 漯筱桁 桧耱栩篁囔 疱龛 玎溧 磬鲨铐嚯铋 耦腓溧痦铖蜩 钺羼镥麇龛 邋 镳彖祗耱 [44]. 亦觐 镱漉钿 镳邃耱噔弪 磬栳铍邋 忮痦铋 铖眍忸 潆 觐眈蜩蝮鲨铐嚯钽 桎遴腓珈, 镳 觐蝾痤 噌耱疣牝睇 鲥眄铖蜩 镳桀狃弪帼 玎觐眄 耦鲨嚯 纛痨. 朽琊屮屙桢 镳桧鲨镨嚯钽 觌囫耦忸泐 磬鲨铐嚯钽 觐眙腓牝 耢铈弪 耱囹 趔礓囔屙蝾 溴轳蜮栩咫 箜桠屦襦朦眍泐 磬鲨铐嚯桤爨.

 

***

镳桤磬蝈脲 缅眇 锗痫屙滂磴 (Henry Harpending) 玎 觐眈箅圉梃 镱 镳桁屙屙棹 邈 纛痨箅, 逆桁 令忮痂 (Jim Bowery), 需牦 惕 (Rick Michod) 妈眈 妖轲梓 (Vince Sarich) 玎 桴 牮栩梓羼觇 玎戾鬣龛. 离囗 蓄滏屦 (Alan Rogers) 桉镱朦珙忄 蝮 驽 纛痨箅, 黩 , 潆 镱漕犴 爨蝈爨蜩麇耜桴 漕赅玎蝈朦耱.

 

橡桁鬻囗

Alesina, A., Baqir, R., & Easterly. W. (1999). Public goods and ethnic divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics 114, 124384.

Alexander, R. D. (1979a). Darwinism and human affairs. The Jessie and John Danz Lectures. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Borjas, G. J. (1999). Heaven's door: Immigration policy and the American economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Boyd, R., and Richerson, P. J. (1985). Culture and the evolutionary process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bulmer, M. (1994). Theoretical evolutionary ecology. Massachusetts: Sinauer, Sunderland.

Burnham, J. (1975/1964). Suicide of the West: An essay on the meaning and destiny of liberalism. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington house.

Canovan, M. (1996). Nationhood and political theory. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Caton, H. P. (1988). The politics of progress: The origins and development of the commercial republic, 1600-1835. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.

Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., and Bodmer. W. F. (1999/1971). The genetics of human populations. Mineola, NY: Dover.

Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Menozzi, P., & Piazza, A. (1994). The history and geography of human genes. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Connor, W. (1985). The impact of homelands upon diasporas. In G. Sheffer (Ed.), Modern diasporas in international politics (pp. 16-46). London: Croom Helm.

Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1989/1984). Human ethology. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1998). In der Falle des Kurzzeitdenkens [The trap of short-term thinking]. Zürich: Piper.

Francis, S. (1999/1984). James Burnham. Thinkers of our time. London: Claridge Press.

Goetze, D. (1998). Evolution, mobility, and ethnic group formation. Politics and the Life Sciences 17, 5971.

Gudmundsson, H., Gudbjartsson, D. F., Frigge, M., Gulcher, J. R, & Stefansson, K. 2000. Inheritance of human longevity in Iceland. European Journal of Human Genetics 8, 7439.

Habermas, J. (1998). The inclusion of the other: Studies in political theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Haldane, J. B. S. (1955). Population genetics. New Biology (London) 18, 34.

Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetic evolution of social behavior, parts 1 and 2. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7, 1-51.

. (1970). Selfish and spiteful behaviour in an evolutionary model. Nature 228:121820.

. (1972). Altruism and related phenomena, mainly in social insects. Annual Review of Ecological Systems 3:193232.

. (1975). Innate social aptitudes of man: An approach from evolutionary genetics. In R. Fox (Ed.), Biosocial anthropology (pp. 133-55). London: Malaby Press.

. (1996/1963). The evolution of altruistic behavior. In W. D. Hamilton (Ed.), Narrow roads of gene land. Vol. 1, Evolution of social behaviour (pp. 68). Oxford: W. H. Freeman. (Originally published in American Naturalist 97: 3546.)

Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science 162, 1243-8.

. (1993). Living within limits. Ecology, economics, and population taboos. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

. (2001/1974). Living on a lifeboat [reprinted from BioScience, October 1974]. The Social Contract 12, 3647.

Harpending, H. (1979). The population genetics of interactions. American Naturalist 113, 62230.

Hutchinson, J. & Smith, A. D., ed. (1996). Ethnicity. Oxford readers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Keith, A. (1968/1947). A new theory of human evolution. New York: Philosophical Library.

MacDonald, K. (1994). A people that shall dwell alone: Judaism as a group evolutionary strategy. Human evolution, behavior, and intelligence. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Michod, R. E., and Hamilton, W. D. (2001/1980). Coefficients of relatedness in sociobiology. In W. D. Hamilton (Ed.), Narrow roads of gene land. VolumeII, Evolution of Sex (pp. 10815). New York: Oxford University Press. (Originally in Nature 288, pp. 6947.)

Morton, N. E., Kenett, R., Yee, S., & Lew, R. (1982). Bioassay of kinship in populations of Middle Eastern origin and controls. Current Anthropology 23, 157-67.

Parsons, J. (1998). Human population competition: The pursuit of power through numbers. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.

Pepper, J. W. (2000). Relatedness in trait group models of social evolution. Journal of Theoretical Biology 206, 35568.

Rubin, P. H. (2000). Does ethnic conflict pay? Politics and the Life Sciences 19, 5968.

Rushton, J. P. (1989). Genetic similarity, human altruism, and group selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12, 503-559.

Salter, F. K. (1996). Sociology as alchemy. Skeptic, 4, (1), 50-59.

. (2001). A defense and an extension of Pierre van den Berghe抯 theory of ethnic nepotism. In P. James and D. Goetze (Eds.), Evolutionary theory and ethnic conflict (pp. 39263). Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

. (in press-a 2002). Ethnic nepotism as a two-edged sword: The risk-mitigating role of ethnicity among mafiosi, nationalist fighters, middleman, and dissidents. In F. K. Salter (Ed.), Risky transactions. Kinship, ethnicity, and trust. Oxford and New York: Berghahn.

. (in press-b 2002). Introduction: The symposium target paper in broader context. In F. Salter (Ed.), Welfare, ethnicity, and altruism. New data and evolutionary theory. London: Frank Cass.

. (in press-c 2002). Ethnic diversity, foreign aid, economic growth, social stability, and population policy: A perspective on W. Masters and M. McMillan抯 findings. In F. Salter (Ed.), Welfare, ethnicity, and altruism. New data and evolutionary theory. London: Frank Cass.

. (in preparation 2002). On genetic interests.

Service, E. (1962). Primitive social organization: An evolutionary perspective. New York: Random House.

Simon, J. L. (1989). The economic consequences of immigration. Cambridge, Mass.: Basil Blackwell.

Smith, J. P., & Edmonston B. Eds. (1997). The new Americans: Economic, demographic, and fiscal effects of immigration. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.

Spicer, E. H. (1971). Persistent cultural systems. Science 174, 795-800.

van den Berghe, P. L. (1981). The ethnic phenomenon. New York: Elsevier.

van der Dennen, J. M. G. (1995). The origin of war. The evolution of a male-coalitional reproductive strategy. Groningen, Netherlands: Origin.

Walzer, M. (1990/1992). What does it means to be an 'American'? In M. Walzer (Ed.), What it means to be an American (pp. 2349). New York: Marsilio.

Wiessner, P. (in press 2002). Taking the risk out of risky transactions: A forager's dilemma. In F. K. Salter (Ed.), Risky transactions. Kinship, ethnicity, and trust. Oxford and New York: Berghahn.

Wiessner, P., and Tumu, A. (1998b). Historical vines: Enga networks of exchange, ritual, and warfare in Papua New Guinea. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute Press.

(Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2001, 亦犭.10web-site US Census Bureau, May 2002, Table PCT002).

(Statistical Abstracts of the United States, 2001, 亦犭.15).

 

 

吾耱忸 锑犟 想囗赅, 软耱栩篁 铍钽梃 麇腩忮赅, 孕

Frank K. Salter, Ph.D.

Max Planck Gesselschaft,

Institute four Menschen Verhalten, Deutschland

 



[1] 项 玎戾彘 扈沭圉桢 镱龛爨 蜞觇 溴祛沭圄梓羼觇 镳铞羼覃, 觐沅 钿磬 龛麇耜 沭箫镟, 扈沭桊 磬 蝈痧栩铕棹 镳铈桠囗 漯筱铋, 耦 怵屐屙屐 玎戾弪 耦犷  镱耠邃睨.

[2] . 燕腧屦 怆弪 镳桠屦驽眦屐 礤钿囵忤龛珈.

[3] 物疱溴桴 桧滂忤潴嚯 铖钺屙眍耱, 觐蝾瘥 镳怆 翦眍蜩镨麇耜.

[4] 翌 羼螯 忭篁疱眄桢 篑蜞眍怅 镱蝠遽眍耱, 磬镳噔桢 邈 溴蝈朦眍耱.

[5] 枢  猁腩, 磬镳桁屦, XIX . 殷痍羼蜞礤 镱耠 镳桉铄滂礤龛 邈 蓄耨栝耜铋 褥镥痂: 痼耨觇 桁扈沭囗螓 玎镱腠桦, 蝾黜邋, 耦玟嚯 眍恹 铍钽梓羼觇 龛, 礤疋铋耱忮眄 觐疱眄铎 蟒痍耜铎 磬皴脲龛.